The Geologic Time Scale 2020, Second Edition of the winner of a 2012 PROSE Award Honorable Mention for Best Multi-volume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers, is the framework for deciphering the history of our planet Earth. The authors have been at the forefront of chronostratigraphic research and initiatives to create an international geologic time scale for many years, and the charts in this book present the most up-to-date, international standard, as ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and the International Union of Geological Sciences. This 2020 geologic time scale is an enhanced, improved and expanded version of the GTS2004, including chapters on planetary scales, the Cryogenian-Ediacaran periods/systems, a prehistory scale of human development, a survey of sequence stratigraphy, and an extensive compilation of stable-isotope chemostratigraphy.
This book is an essential reference for all geoscientists, including researchers, students, and petroleum and mining professionals. The presentation is non-technical and illustrated with numerous colour charts, maps and photographs. The book also includes a detachable wall chart of the complete time scale for use as a handy reference in the office, laboratory or field.
- The most detailed international geologic time scale available that contextualizes information in one single reference for quick desktop access
- Gives insights in the construction, strengths, and limitations of the geological time scale that greatly enhances its function and its utility
- Aids understanding by combining with the mathematical and statistical methods to scaled composites of global succession of events
- Meets the needs of a range of users at various points in the workflow (researchers extracting linear time from rock records, students recognizing the geologic stage by their content)
PART I INTRODUCTION 1. Introduction, F. M. Gradstein 2. Chronostratigraphy: linking time and rock, F. M. Gradstein and j. G. Ogg PART II CONCEPTS AND METHODS 3. Biochronology, F.M.Gradstein 4. Cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology, L. A.hinnov and f.j.hilgen 5. The geomagnetic polarity time scale, J. G. Ogg 6. Radiogenic isotopes geochronology, M.Schmitz And M. Villeneuve 7. Strontium isotope stratigraphy, J. M. Mcarthur, R. J. Howarth and G.Shields 8. Osmium isotope stratigraphy, B. Peucker-Ehrenbrink and G. Ravizza 9. Sulfur isotope stratigraphy, A. Paytan 10. Oxygen isotope stratigraphy, E. Grossman 11. Carbon isotope stratigraphy, M. Saltzman and E. Thomas 12. A Brief History of Plants on Earth S.R. Gradstein and H. Kerp 13. Sequence chronostratigraphy, M. Simmons 14. Statistical procedures, F. P. Agterberg, O. Hammer and F.M. Gradstein PART III 15. The Planetary time scale, K.TANAKA AND B.HARTMANN 16. The Precambrian: the Archean and Proterozoic Eons, M.van Kranendonk and co-authors 17. The Cryogenian Period, G. A. Shields, A.C. Hill and B. A. MacGabhann 18. The Ediacaran Period, G. Narbonne, S. Xiao and G.A. Shields Bibliography Volume 2
PART IV GEOLOGIC PERIODS PHANEROZOIC 19. The Cambrian Period, S. Peng, L. Babcock and R. A. Cooper 20. The Ordovician Period, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler 21. The Silurian Period, M. J. Melchin, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler 22. The Devonian Period, T. Becker, F. M. Gradstein and O. Hammer 23. The Carboniferous Period, V. Davydov, D. Korn and M. Schmitz 24. The Permian Period, CH. Henderson, V. Davydov and B. Wardlaw 25. The Triassic Period, J. G. Ogg 26. The Jurassic Period, J. G. Ogg 27. The Cretaceous Period, J. G. Ogg and L. Hinnov 28. The Paleogene Period, N. Vandenberghe, R. Speijer and F.J. Hilgen 29. The Neogene Period, F.J. Hilgen, L. Lourens, and J. van Dam 30. The Quaternary Period, B. Pillans and P. Gibbard 31. The Prehistoric Human Time Scale, J.A. Catt and M.A. Maslin 32. The Anthropocene, J.Z Alasiewicz, P. Crutzen and W. Steffen Appendix 1- Recommended color coding of stages Appendix 2
Radiometric ages used in GTS2012, M.D. Schmitz Appendix 3
Biochronology of Paleogene and Neogene Microfossils, E. Anthonissen, J.G. Ogg.
FELIX GRADSTEIN is Professor Emeritus at Oslo University, Norway and visiting Research Fellow, University of Portsmouth, UK. From 2000 to 2008, he was chair of the International Commission on Stratigraphy. Under his leadership major progress was made with the formal definition of chronostratigraphic units from Precambrian through Quaternary. For his fundamental work concerning the Geologic Time Scale, geochronology in general, quantitative stratigraphy and micropaleontology, the European Geosciences Union awarded him in 2010 the Jean Baptiste Lamarck Medal. He is Chair of the Geologic Time Scale Foundation and teaches courses in quantitative stratigraphy and the geologic time scale. Now that he has free time again, after completing this book with his outstanding co-editors and co-authors, he studies the early evolution of planktonic foraminifera.
Ogg, James G.
JAMES OGG (Professor at Purdue University, Indiana, USA; now retired/adjunct) is also currently a visiting distinguished professor at Chengdu University of Technology and at China University of Geoscience (Wuhan). He served as Secretary General of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (2000-2008), and currently is executive director of the Geologic TimeScale Foundation and coordinator of TimeScale Creator service (https://timescalecreator.org/). His Mesozoic Stratigraphy Lab group has worked on aspects of climate cycles, magnetic polarity correlations and integration of stratigraphic information. Their TimeScale Creator array of visualization tools and extensive databases in global and regional Earth history was used to generate many of the diagrams in this book.
Schmitz, Mark B.
MARK SCHMITZ is Professor of Geochemistry at Boise State University, Idaho, USA, and has extensive research interests in the development and application of radiogenic isotope geochemistry and high-precision U-Pb geochronology to problems of Earth systems evolution. He has been an active member of the Earth Time community and was co-editor and author for the Geologic Time Scale 2012. He seeks to enrich the radioisotopic calibration of the time scale through targeted dating of stratigraphically important volcanic event beds and the construction of robust chronostratigraphic models through geologic time. His extensive database with over 300 standardized radiogenic isotope ages (mainly U/Pb and Ar/Ar) is vital to this book.
Ogg, Gabi M.
GABI OGG applied micropaleontology to Jurassic-Cretaceous correlations before concentrating on public outreach in geosciences. She coordinated the extensive array of graphics in this book, and is the webmaster for the Geologic TimeScale Foundation (https://timescalefoundation.org) and for the TimeScale Creator visualization and database suites (https://timescalecreator.org). In addition to co-authoring the Concise Geologic TimeScale (GTS2016) and The Geologic Time Scale (GTS2012) books, she has produced numerous posters and time scale cards for public audiences.