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Stress Response and Immunity: Links and Trade Offs

  • ID: 5005280
  • Book
  • February 2020
  • 459 Pages
  • Bentham Science Publishers Ltd

When environmental conditions deviate from the optimal range, stress ensues. Stress response is a set of reactions that allow the organism to adjust and survive adverse conditions. Stress can be physical, such as extreme temperature, radiation, injury, or psychological, caused by perceived danger or deprivation. Every living cell has biochemical mechanisms to cope with physical stress. These mechanisms show a degree of similarity among several types of living organisms.

Stress Response and Immunity: Links and Trade Offs explores the functional and evolutionary connections between stress response and immunity. The book introduces the reader to the concept of stress and subsequently examines the connection between stress response and immunity at various evolutionary stages of living organisms - from bacteria to humans. The book also features chapters dedicated to the role of tumor suppressor genes and the immune system of the brain. The information presented in this reference demonstrates the profound effects of physical and psychological stress on human health.

Readers with basic knowledge of molecular biology will learn about the interesting facets of stress responses and the evolutionary trade offs observed in different life forms.

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CHAPTER 1 LIFE IS STRESSFUL
1.1. Conditions that Support Life
1.2. Life is Fueled by ATP
1.3. Sensing Environment
1.4. Homeostasis
1.5. Proteostasis
1.6. Stress and Stress Response
1.6.1. Shortage of Energy and Nutrients
1.6.2. Oxidative Stress
1.6.3. Radiation
1.6.4. Heat and Cold Stress
1.6.5. Osmotic Stress
1.6.6. pH Stress
1.6.7. Toxic Compounds
1.6.8. DNA Damage

CHAPTER 2 PATHOGENS
2.1. Viruses
2.2. Viroids and Prions
2.3. Mobile Genetic Elements
2.3.1. Insertion Sequences
2.3.2. Transposons
2.3.3. Plasmids
2.3.4. Group I and Group II Introns
2.3.5. Homing Endonucleases
2.3.6. Chromosomal Islands
2.3.7. Gene Cassettes and Integrons
2.3.8. The Role of MGEs
2.4. Bacterial Pathogens
2.5. Archaea
2.6. Fungal Pathogens
2.7. Protozoan Pathogens
2.8. Helminths
2.9. Life is a Communal Enterprise

CHAPTER 3 HOW BACTERIA COPE WITH STRESS
3.1. Sensing Environment
3.2. Heat and Cold Shock Responses
3.3. General Stress Response
3.4. Envelope Stress Response
3.5. Starvation
3.6. Oxidative Stress
3.7. Osmotic Stress
3.8. pH Stress
3.9. Metals
3.10. DNA Damage Response
3.11. Multiple Stresses
3.12. Programmed Cell Death in Bacteria
3.13. Phenotypic Diversity and Persisters
3.14. Stress of Living Together
3.15. Archaea Stress Responses

CHAPTER 4 EXTREMOPHILES
4.1. Thermophiles
4.2. Psychrophiles
4.3. Halophiles
4.4. Alkaliphiles
4.5. Acidophiles
4.6. Piezophiles
4.7. Polyextremophiles

CHAPTER 5 IMMUNODEFENSES OF PROKARYOTES
5.1. Secreted Extracellular Molecules
5.2. Preventing Cell Entry
5.3. Non-specific Silencing of Foreign Genes
5.4. Restriction Modification Systems
5.5. Bacteriophage Exclusion (BREX) Systems
5.6. CRISPR-Cas Immunity
5.7. Argonaute-based Nucleic Acid Interference
5.8. Abortive Infection
5.9. Superinfection Exclusion
5.10. New Immune Systems

CHAPTER 6 INTERACTION OF STRESS AND IMMUNE RESPONSES IN PROKARYOTES
6.1. Mobile Genetic Elements are Induced by Stress
6.2. Mobile Genetic Elements can Improve the Host’s Fitness
6.3. Infection Induces Envelope Stress Response
6.4. CRISPR-Cas Activation in Response to Stress
6.5. CRISPR-Cas Responds to Metabolic Changes
6.6. Effect of Stress on R/M Systems
6.7. MGEs and Pathogenic Bacteria
6.8. The Role of Stress Response in Bacterial Pathogenesis
6.9. Role of Stress in Evolution of Prokaryotic Immunity

CHAPTER 7 RESPONSE OF EUKARYOTES TO STRESS
7.1. Integrated Stress Response
7.2. Transcriptional Stress Response
7.3. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response
7.4. Autophagy
7.5. Mitochondrial Stress
7.6. Starvation
7.7. Oxidative Stress
7.8. Heat Stress
7.9. Osmotic Stress
7.10. DNA Damage Response
7.11. Regulated Cell Death
7.12. Regulation of Stress Response at the Level of Organism
7.12.1. Non-autonomous Regulation of Stress Response in Animals
7.12.2. Stress Response in Plants
7.13. Cross-Stress Resistance

CHAPTER 8 P53, GUARDIAN OF THE GENOME
8.1. Genes of p53 Family
8.2. p53 Activity
8.3. p53 Network Regulation
8.4. p53 Dictates Cell Fate
8.5. Genome Protection by p53
8.6. p53 as a Tumor Suppressor
8.7. p53 Interaction with NFkB

CHAPTER 9 AUTONOMOUS IMMUNITY
9.1. RNA Interference
9.2. Pathogen-associated Molecular Patterns and Pattern Recognition Receptors
9.3. Danger Theory
9.4. Interferons
9.5. Inflammasome
9.6. Major Sensors of Autonomous Immune System
9.6.1. Sensing Foreign RNA
9.6.2. Sensing Foreign DNA
9.6.3. Nucleotide-binding Domain (NBD) and Leucine-rich Repeat (LRR)-containing Receptors (NLRs)
9.6.4. Uncommon PRRs
9.7. Activation of Immune Mechanisms by Genetic Defects
9.8. Immune Effectors
9.9. Toxic Compounds as Immune Effectors
9.10. Regulated Cell Death as Immunodefense

CHAPTER 10 STRESS RESPONSE MEETS AUTONOMOUS IMMUNITY
10.1. Homeostatic Perturbations and Immune Response
10.2. Integrated Stress Response and Immune Response
10.3. Unfolded Protein Response and Autonomous Immunity
10.4. DDR and Autonomous Immunity
10.5. p53 and Autonomous Immunity
10.6. Oxidative Stress and Autonomous Immunity
10.7. Autophagy and Immunodefense
10.8. Balancing Stress and Immune Responses

CHAPTER 11 SPECIALIZED IMMUNE SYSTEMS OF ANIMALS
11.1. Inflammation
11.1.1. Inflammation Triggers and Mediators
11.1.2. Fever
11.1.3. Inflammation Control and Resolution
11.1.4. Memory of Inflammation
11.1.5. Inflammation is a Necessary Step in Tissue Repair
11.1.6. Inflammation in Immunodefense
11.1.7. Inflammatory Diseases
11.2. Phagocytosis
11.3. Natural Killer Cells and Missing-Self Recognition
11.4. Complement System
11.5. Adaptive Immunity
11.5.1. Adaptive Antigen Receptors
11.5.2. DNA Damage Response in T and B Cells
11.5.3. Regulation of T and B Cells

CHAPTER 12 BRAIN, STRESS, AND IMMUNITY CONNECTIONS
12.1. Immune System of the Brain
12.2. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) Axis
12.3. How Brain Controls Immunity
12.4. Sickness Behavior
12.5. Psychological Stress and Immunity
12.6. Effects of Stress and Inflammation on Brain Development and Health
12.7. Inflammation, Microglia, and Mental Illness
12.7.1. Depression
12.7.2. Anxiety
12.7.3. Neurodegenerative Disorders
12.7.4. Schizophrenia
12.8. Physical Illnesses, the Brain, and Immunity
12.9. Stress and Lymphoid Cells
 
SUBJECT INDEX

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  • Nadia Danilova
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