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Nanocarbon Electrochemistry. Edition No. 1. Nanocarbon Chemistry and Interfaces

  • ID: 5228301
  • Book
  • January 2020
  • 384 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of nanocarbon electrochemistry

The discoveries of new carbon materials such as fullerene, graphene, carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoribbon, carbon dots, and graphdiyne have triggered numerous research advances in the field of electrochemistry. This book brings together up-to-date accounts of the recent progress, developments, and achievements in the electrochemistry of different carbon materials, focusing on their unique properties and various applications.

Nanocarbon Electrochemistry begins by looking at the studies of heterogeneous electron transfer at various carbon electrodes when redox-active molecules are reversibly and specifically adsorbed on the carbon electrode surface. It then covers electrochemical energy storage applications of various carbon materials, particularly the construction and performance of supercapacitors and batteries by use of graphene and related materials. Next, it concentrates on electrochemical energy conversion applications where electrocatalysis at 0D, 1D, 2D, and 3D carbon materials nanocarbon materials is highlighted. The book finishes with an examination of the contents of electrogenerated chemiluminescence and photoelectrochemical pollutant degradation by use of diamond and related carbon materials.

  • Covers the fundamental properties of different carbon materials and their applications across a wide range of areas
  • Provides sufficient background regarding different applications, which contributes to the understanding of specialists and non-specialists
  • Examines nanoelectrochemistry of adsorption-coupled electron transfer at carbon electrodes; graphene and graphene related materials; diamond electrodes for the electrogenerated chemiluminescence; and more
  • Features contributions from an international team of distinguished researchers

Nanocarbon Electrochemistry is an ideal book for students, researchers, and industrial partners working on many diverse fields of electrochemistry, whether they already make frequent use of carbon electrodes in one form of another or are looking at electrodes for new applications.

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List of Contributors xi

Series Preface xv

Preface xvii

1 Nanoelectrochemistry of Adsorption-Coupled Electron Transfer at Carbon Electrodes 1
Shigeru Amemiya

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Overview of Adsorption-Coupled ET 2

1.3 Clean Carbon Electrodes 4

1.4 SECM-Based Nanogap Voltammetry 7

1.5 Adsorption-Coupled Outer-Sphere ET 13

1.6 Self-Inhibition of Outer-Sphere ET 16

1.7 Coupling Between Outer- and Inner-Sphere ET 19

1.8 Resolving Outer- and Inner-Sphere ET 23

1.9 Summary and Perspectives 26

Acknowledgments 26

References 26

2 The Capacitance of Graphene: From Model Systems to Large-Scale Devices 33
Pawin Iamprasertkun and Robert A.W. Dryfe

2.1 Graphene Overview 33

2.2 Introduction to Capacitance 34

2.2.1 Capacitance Model 34

2.2.2 Space Charge Capacitance 36

2.2.3 Quantum Capacitance 37

2.3 Capacitance of Graphene 39

2.4 Formation of Heterostructures: Graphene and Other 2D Materials 43

2.4.1 Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDCs) 43

2.4.2 2D Nanocrystal or MXenes 44

2.4.3 Hexagonal Boron Nitride (h-BN) 46

2.4.4 Phosphorene 47

2.5 Formulation of 3D Graphene Architectures 49

2.5.1 Graphene Sponges 49

2.5.2 Template-Assisted Graphene 49

2.5.3 Graphene Aerogels 51

2.5.4 Pillared Graphene Frameworks (PGFs) 54

2.5.5 Carbon Composites 56

2.6 The Influence of Heteroatom Doping on Graphene 56

2.6.1 Oxygen-Doped Graphene 57

2.6.2 Nitrogen-Doped Graphene 58

2.6.3 Boron-Doped Graphene 61

2.6.4 Use of Other Elements to Dope Graphene 61

2.6.5 Co-doped Graphene 63

2.6.6 Multi-element Doping of Graphene 64

2.7 Application of Graphene in Large-Scale Devices 65

2.7.1 General Principles of Supercapacitors 65

2.7.2 Graphene-Based Supercapacitors and Novel Cell Design 68

2.7.3 Li/Na Ion Capacitors 70

2.8 Summary and Future Outlook 71

References 75

3 Graphene and Related Materials as Anode Materials in Li Ion Batteries: Science and Practicality 85
Sandeep Kumar Marka, Veera Venkata Harish Peruswamula, and Venkata Satya Siva Srikanth Vadali

3.1 Introduction 85

3.2 Graphite as an Anode Material in Li Ion Batteries 86

3.3 Graphene and Related Materials as Anode Material in Li Ion Batteries 89

3.3.1 Graphene and Related Materials as Anode Material in LIBs-Science and Practicality 90

3.3.2 Intercalation-based 91

3.3.2.1 rGO-TiO2 System 91

3.3.2.2 rGO-Li4Ti5O12 System 91

3.3.2.3 rGO-Vanadium Oxides System 92

3.3.3 Conversion-based 92

3.3.3.1 MMoO4 (i.e., M = Fe, Co,Ni, Ca, Mn, Zn, and Cu) 92

3.3.3.2 Mo-Cluster Oxysalts (i.e., A2Mo3O8 Type, A = Fe, Co, Mn, and Zn or LiHoMo3O8) 95

3.3.4 Alloying-based 97

3.3.4.1 rGO-Si System 97

3.3.4.2 rGO-Ge System 99

3.3.4.3 rGO-SnO2 System 110

References 114

4 Nanocarbon Materials Toward Textile-Based Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices 123
Qiyao Huang, DongruiWang, and Zijian Zheng

4.1 Introduction 123

4.2 Nanocarbon Materials for TEESDs 125

4.2.1 Nanocarbon as Active Material for SCs 125

4.2.2 Nanocarbon as Functional Material for LIBs 127

4.3 Fabrication of Nanocarbon-Based Electrodes for TEESDs 127

4.3.1 Direct Coating on Existing Textile Fibers, Yarns and Fabrics 128

4.4 In-Situ Growth on Textile Surfaces 130

4.4.1 Direct Spinning of Nanocarbon Fibers 133

4.5 Conclusion and Perspective 136

References 137

5 1D and 2D Flexible Carbon Matrix Materials for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries 145
Tianyi Wang, Yushu Liu, Dawei Su, and Guoxiu Wang

5.1 Introduction 145

5.2 The Working Mechanism and Challenges of Li–S Batteries 145

5.3 Flexible Cathode Hosts for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries 146

5.4 Electrolyte Membranes for Flexible Li–S Batteries 155

5.5 Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Flexible Li–S Batteries 157

5.6 Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Flexible Li–S Batteries 159

5.7 Composite Polymer Electrolytes for Flexible Li–S Batteries 159

5.8 Separator for Flexible Li–S Batteries 161

5.9 Summary 165

References 165

6 Conductive Diamond for Electrochemical Energy Applications 171
Siyu Yu, Nianjun Yang, Xin Jiang, Wenjun Zhang, and Shetian Liu

6.1 Introduction 171

6.2 Electrochemical Energy Storage 172

6.2.1 Supercapacitor 172

6.2.1.1 Diamond EDLCs 173

6.2.1.2 Diamond PC 177

6.2.1.3 Supercapacitor Device 179

6.2.2 Battery 180

6.3 Electrochemical Energy Conversion 183

6.3.1 Fuel Cell 183

6.3.2 Solar Cell 186

6.4 Electrocatalysis for CO2 Conversion 187

6.5 Summary and Outlook 191

Acknowledgments 192

References 192

7 Electrocatalysis at Nanocarbons: Model Systems and Applications in Energy Conversion 201
Carlota Domínguez, James A. Behan, and Paula E. Colavita

7.1 Introduction 201

7.2 High-Performing Nanocarbon Electrocatalysts 203

7.2.1 Zero-Dimensional (0D) Carbon Materials 204

7.2.1.1 Carbon Dots 205

7.2.1.2 Carbon Nano-Onions 205

7.2.1.3 Carbon Blacks and Activated Carbons 207

7.2.2 High Aspect Ratio (1D) Nanocarbons 208

7.2.2.1 Nanohorns 209

7.2.2.2 Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers 211

7.2.3 Two-Dimensional (2D) Carbon Materials 216

7.2.3.1 Graphene and Graphene Nanoribbons 216

7.2.3.2 Carbon Nanobelts and Thin Films 221

7.2.4 Three-Dimensional (3D) Carbon Materials 221

7.2.4.1 Bottom-Up Synthesis of 3D Networks 222

7.2.4.2 Templated 3D Superstructures 224

7.3 Carbon Model Systems 225

7.3.1 HOPG 229

7.3.2 Graphene 233

7.3.3 Amorphous Carbon 236

7.4 Concluding Remarks and Outlook 239

Acknowledgments 240

References 240

8 Metal-Organic Frameworks Based Porous Carbons for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Applications 251
Shaofang Fu, Junhua Song, Chengzhou Zhu, Dan Du, and Yuehe Lin

8.1 Introduction 251

8.2 MOF-Derived Porous Carbon Catalysts 253

8.2.1 Heteroatoms Dopant Effects on MOF-Based Porous Carbon Catalysts 254

8.2.2 MOF-Derived Carbon Composites 257

8.3 Metal Incorporated MOF-Derived Porous Carbon Catalysts 259

8.3.1 Impact of Metallic Composition on ORR Activity 260

8.3.2 Heteroatom Dopant Effect on Incorporated Metal and Single Atoms 266

8.3.3 Morphological Influence on the Catalytic Activity 268

8.4 Challenges and Perspective 274

References 276

9 Diamond Electrodes for Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence 285
Andrea Fiorani, Irkham, Giovanni Valenti, Yasuaki Einaga, and Francesco Paolucci

9.1 Introduction 285

9.2 Fundamentals of Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence 285

9.3 Coreactants 287

9.4 ECL Luminophores 289

9.5 Electrochemiluminescence at Diamond Electrodes 289

9.6 TPrA 290

9.7 Oxalate 295

9.8 Hydroxyl Radical 299

9.9 Persulfate 303

9.10 Luminol 306

9.11 Conclusions 312

References 312

10 Decoration of Advanced Carbon Materials with Metal Oxides for Photoelectrochemical Applications 323
Ya-nan Zhang, Huijie Shi, Yuqing Chen, Rongrong Cui, and Guohua Zhao

10.1 Introduction 323

10.2 BDD and its Application in Electro-Analysis, EC, and PEC Oxidation of Environmental Pollutants 324

10.2.1 Detection of Pollutants on BDD 324

10.2.2 EC Oxidation of Pollutants on BDD 330

10.2.3 PEC Oxidation of Pollutants on BDD 333

10.3 Decoration of CA with Metal Oxides and their Photoelectrochemical Applications 337

10.3.1 Fabrication and Structures of CA 337

10.3.2 Decoration of CA with Metal Oxides for Environmental Application 341

10.3.2.1 Enhanced Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Organic Pollutants 341

10.3.2.2 Electro-Fenton and Photo–Electro–Fenton Oxidation of Pollutants 342

10.3.2.3 Efficient Electrosorption-Promoted Photoelectrochemical Oxidation of Wastewater 344

10.4 Summary 346

Acknowledgments 347

References 347

Index 357

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Nianjun Yang
Guohua Zhao
John S. Foord University of Oxford, UK.
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