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Advanced Physical Chemistry Practical Guide

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    Book

  • February 2022
  • Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
  • ID: 5557831
Advanced Physical Chemistry Practical Guide aims to improve the student’s understanding of theory through practical experience and by facilitating experimental exercises. The book covers a wide range of areas from basic to advanced experiments including the calibration of instruments as well as the use of software for accurate computational quantum chemical calculations.


This book is divided into four sections:




  • Part I - general introduction, calibration of glassware, instruments and precautions
  • Part II - experiments that have a simple theoretical background and classical methods
  • Part III - experiments that are associated with more advanced theory, and techniques that require a greater degree of experimental skill and instrumentation
  • Part IV - investigative experiments relying on computers



Covering all aspects of classical, advanced and computational chemistry experiments, Advanced Physical Chemistry Practical Guide will enable students to gain confidence in their ability to perform a physical chemistry experiment and to appreciate the value of an experimental approach towards the subject.

Advanced Physical Chemistry Practical Guide is an essential handbook for students and teachers at advanced levels who seek to learn practical knowledge about important aspects of physical chemistry.

Table of Contents

FOREWORD

PREFACE

CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION UNITS AND SIGNIFICANT DIGIT

  • List of Units Useful for This Book
  • Significant Digit



CALIBRATION OF VOLUMETRIC APPARATUS CALIBRATION OF BALANCE PREPARATION OF STANDARD SOLUTION STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA ANALYSISS Accuracy and Precision

  • Precision
  • Examples of Precision and Accuracy



ERROR PRECAUTIONS IN LABORATORY

  • General Rules and Safety Precautions to Be Taken in a Chemistry Laboratory
  • Precautionary Rules



GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

  • Safety in the Chemical Laboratory
  • Maintenance of Laboratory Records
  • General Organization of Laboratory
  • Volumetric Analysis
  • Preparation of Standard Solution
  • Weighing
  • Caution
  • Handling of Pipette and Burette
  • Handling of Density Bottle and Pyknometer



FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 2 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY PRACTICAL USING THERMO-CHEMISTRY

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

  • Philosophy of Life: From One Dimension to Three Dimension



DESCRIPTION OF CALORIMETER
I. TO FIND WATER EQUIVALENT OF CALORIMETER AND DETERMINATION OF HEAT OF DILUTION OF H2SO4
II. TO FIND OUT HEAT OF NEUTRALISATION OF NaOH AND HCl
III. TO FIND RELATIVE STRENGTH OF TWO ACIDS BY ESTIMATING HEAT OF NEUTRALISATION.
IV. TO FIND HEAT OF FORMATION OF MgO CALORIMETRICALLY

CRYOSCOPY AND EBULLIOSCOPY
V. TO DETERMINE THE MOLAR MASS OF THE GIVEN SOLUTE IN WATER BY DEPRESSION IN FREEZING POINT METHOD
VI. TO DETERMINE MOLAR MASS OF GIVEN SOLUTE IN WATER BY ELEVATION OF BOILING POINT METHOD

FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 3 CHEMICAL KINETICS EXPERIMENTS.

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

  • Zero Order Reaction
  • First Order Reaction
  • Second-Order Reaction


I. TO STUDY THE REACTION BETWEEN ACETONE AND IODINE IN PRESENCE OF ACID
II. A. TO FIND RATE CONSTANT OF HYDROLYSIS OF METHYL ACETATE CATALYSED BY AN ACID AND DETERMINATION OF HALF-LIFE OF THE REACTION
II. B. 1st ORDER REACTION: TO DETERMINE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT OF ACID CATALYSED HYDROLYSIS OF METHYL ACETATE AND ITS ENERGY OF ACTIVATION.
III. TO STUDY THE KINETICS OF SAPONIFICATION OF ETHYL ACETATE WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE.
IV. TO FIND OUT VELOCITY CONSTANT AND ACTIVATION ENERGY OF REACTION BETWEEN POTASSIUM PERSULPHATE AND POTASSIUM IODIDE ALSO STUDY INFLUENCE OF IONIC STRENGTH AND RATE CONSTANT- AN EXAMPLE OF SECOND-ORDER REACTION
V. KINETICS OF IODINE CLOCK REACTION: (A) TO STUDY THE KINETICS OF IODINE CLOCK.
V. B. TO DETERMINE THE RATE CONSTANT FOR OXIDATION OF IODIDE IONS BY H2O2, STUDYING THE KINETICS AS AN IODINE CLOCK REACTION
VI. TO STUDY THE KINETICS OF BROMINATION OF PHENOL BY BROMIDE, BROMATE MIXTURE IN AN ACID MEDIUM AS A CLOCK REACTION
VII. TO FIND OUT ORDER OF REACTION BETWEEN POTASSIUM BROMATE AND POTASSIUM IODIDE
VIII. TO STUDY THE AUTO CATALYTIC REACTION BETWEEN PERMANGANATE AND OXALATE IONS CATALYSED BY MANGANESE IONS
IXA. STUDIES ON KINETICS OF IODINATION OF ACETONE [IODINE EFFECT]
IXB. STUDIES ON KINETICS OF IODINATION OF ACETONE [ACID EFFECT]
IXC. STUDIES ON KINETICS OF IODINATION OF ACETONE [ACETONE EFFECT]

FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 4 PROPERTIES OF LIQUID
I. TO MEASURE THE DENSITY OF A LIQUID USING A PYKNOMETER
II. TO MEASURE THE DENSITY OF A LIQUID USING A DENSITY BOTTLE

SURFACE TENSION OF LIQUID

  • General Introduction
  • Definition


I. Surface Energy
II. Stalagmometer
III. TO STUDY THE SURFACE TENSION OF A LIQUID AND DETERMINE THE SURFACE TENSION OF AN UNKNOWN LIQUID
IV. TO FIND OUT SURFACE TENSION OF METHANOL, ETHANOL AND N-HEXANE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE AND CALCULATE THE ATOMIC PARACHORS OF CARBON, HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN
V. TO DETERMINE THE CRITICAL MICELLE CONCENTRATION (CMC) OF SOAP
VI. TO COMPARE CLEANSING POWERS OF GIVEN SAMPLE OF DETERGENTS
VII. DETERMINATION OF SURFACE EXCESS OF AMYL ALCOHOL
VIII. VISCOSITY OF LIQUID

  • General Introduction
  • Definition
  • Poiseuille Equation
  • Viscometer


VIII. TO STUDY THE COEFFICIENT OF VISCOSITY OF A LIQUID AND DETERMINE THE VISCOSITY OF AN UNKNOWN LIQUID AND VERIFICATION OF CHANGE OF VISCOSITY WITH COMPOSITION.
IX. TO FIND THE CONCENTRATION OF GIVEN MIXTURE CONSISTING OF TWO LIQUIDS A AND B BY VISCOSITY MEASUREMENTS
X. TO CALCULATE MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF A HIGH POLYMER BY MEANS OF VISCOSITY MEASUREMENTS
XI. TO FIND OUT TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT FOR A GIVEN LIQUID, TO DETERMINE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON VISCOSITY

DISTRIBUTION PROPERTIES

  • General Introduction


XII. TO STUDY THE PARTITION COEFFICIENT OR DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENT OF IODINE BETWEEN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE AND WATER AND THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT FOR THE REACTION BY PARTITION METHOD AND VERIFY THE NERNST DISTRIBUTION LAW.
XIII. TO SHOW THAT BENZOIC ACID DIMERISES IN BENZENE AND DETERMINATION OF DIMERIZATION CONSTANT OF BENZOIC ACID IN BENZENE MEDIUM

FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 5 PHASE DIAGRAM


  • GENERAL DISCUSSION


I. TO STUDY THE CRITICAL SOLUTION TEMPERATURE OF A BINARY MIXTURE.
II. TO STUDY THE CRITICAL SOLUTION TEMPERATURE OF A TERNARY MIXTURE

FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 6 ADSORPTION

  • INTRODUCTION


I. STUDY THE ADSORPTION OF ACETIC ACID ON CHARCOAL AND PROVE THE VALIDITY OF FREUNDLICH/LANGMUIR ADSORPTION ISOTHERM
II. TO STUDY THE ADSORPTION OF IODINE FROM ALCOHOLIC SOLUTION ON CHARCOAL

FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 7 INSTRUMENTS BASED ON OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS

REFRACTOMETRY

  • Introduction
  • Specific Refractivity
  • Molar Refractivity
  • Description of Abbe Refractometer
  • Working Principle of Abbe Refractometer


I. TO FIND OUT THE REFRACTIVE INDEX OF THE GIVEN LIQUID AND ALSO FIND ITS MOLAR REFRACTIVITY
II. TO FIND OUT MOLAR REFRACTIVITIES OF THREE LIQUIDS A, B AND C. TO CALCULATE THE COMPOSITION OF LIQUID C, WHICH IS A MIXTURE OF LIQUIDS A AND B.
III. TO CALCULATE ATOMIC REFRACTIVITIES OF CARBON, HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN BY TAKING METHYL ACETATE, ETHYL ACETATE AND N-HEXANE POLARIMETRY
History


  • Introduction
  • Specific Rotation
  • Molecular Rotation
  • Laurent’s Polarimeter
  • Lippich Polarimeter
  • Applications
  • Basics - Plane Waves


I. TO FIND OUT THE SPECIFIC ROTATION AND MOLECULAR ROTATION OF AN OPTICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCE POLARIMETRICALLY AND ALSO FIND CONCENTRATION OF UNKNOWN SOLUTION
II. TO FIND OUT THE PERCENTAGE OF D-SUGAR AND D-TARTARIC ACID IN A GIVEN SOLUTION POLARIMETRICALLY
III. TO FIND OUT ORDER OF A REACTION AND VELOCITY CONSTANT FOR THE INVERSION OF CANE SUGAR BY ACID COLORIMETRY AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRY SPECTROPHOTOMETER
I. TO OBTAIN THE CALIBRATION CURVE FOR A GIVEN COMPOUND AND
(A)VERIFY THE LAMBERT-BEER'S LAW AND (B) DETERMINE CONCENTRATION OF UNKNOWN SOLUTION.
II. TO FIND COMPOSITION OF FERRIC ION IN THIOCYNATE COMPLEX BY JOB'S METHOD.
III. TO DETERMINE THE COMPLEX FORMATION BETWEEN FERRIC AND SALICYLIC ACID TO FIND THE FORMULA AND STABILITY CONSTANT OF THE COMPLEX
IV. TO DETERMINE THE DISSOCIATION CONSTANT OF A GIVEN INDICATOR.

FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 8 MEASUREMENTS BASED ON ELECTRODE pH-METRY

  • Introduction
  • Glass Electrodess
  • Combination Electrodes.
  • Three-in-one Electrodes
  • pH Measuring System
  • pH Electrode System
  • Troubleshooting Guide
  • pH Meter
  • Electrodes
  • Proceed as Follows
  • pH Electrode
  • Other Sources of Error
  • Buffers
  • Operator
  • Applications
  • Electrode Storage


I. TO FIND OUT THE pKa VALUE OF GIVEN OXALIC ACID BY TITRATING IT AGAINST NaOH USING pH METER AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
II. TO FIND OUT THE STRENGTH OF HCL AND ACETIC ACID IN THEIR MIXTURE BY TITRATING IT AGAINST NaOH SOLUTION
III. DETERMINATION OF THE DISSOCIATION CONSTANT OF ACETIC ACID USING pH-METER CONDUCTOMETRY
I. TO FIND OUT CELL CONSTANT OF THE CONDUCTIVITY CELL.
II. TO FIND OUT THE STRENGTH OF STRONG BASE BY TITRATING IT AGAINST STANDARD WEAK ACID SOLUTION AND TO FIND OUT STRENGTH OF STRONG ACID BY TITRATING IT AGAINST STANDARD STRONG BASE
III. TO FIND OUT THE STRENGTH OF A MIXTURE OF ACID BY TITRATING IT AGAINST A STRONG BASE
IV. DETERMINATION OF SOLUBILITY AND SOLUBILITY PRODUCT OF A SPARINGLY SOLUBLE SALT
V. TO DETERMINE DISSOCIATION CONSTANT OF WEAK ACID AND VERIFY OSTWALD DILUTION LAW
VI. POTENTIOMETRIC MEASUREMENT

  • General Discussion and Instrumentation
  • Electrode Potential
  • Silver/silver Chloride Electrode
  • Glass Electrode
  • Convention of Representation of Cells and Calculation of Cell Electro-Motive Potential
  • Measurement of Cell EMF
  • Standard Cell
  • Salt Bridge Preparation
  • Role of A Salt Bridge
  • Measurement of Cell EMF
  • Standard Cell
  • Salt Bridge
  • Salt Bridge Preparation
  • Role of A Salt Bridge
  • Calibrating of a Digital Potentiometer


VII. POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION OF A SOLUTION OF A STRONG ACID WITH A SOLUTION OF STRONG BASE USING QUINHYDRONE ELECTRODE

Author

  • Charu Arora - Author
  • Sumantra Bhattacharya - Author