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Advances in Assisted Reproduction Technologies

  • Book
  • August 2022
  • Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
  • ID: 5654218
More than 4 decades have passed since the birth of the first in vitro fertilized baby in 1978. The use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) to overcome infertility has increased steadily with the simultaneous increase in the number of fertility centers in every part of the world. Access to infertility clinics is playing an important role in the treatment of different forms of infertility (like tubal disease, ovarian aging, or ovarian dysfunction).

This book captures the state of current and recent advances in assisted reproduction technology in humans and livestock in an easy and comprehensive way for non-experts and learners. 10 chapters cover the biology of reproduction, and male ART methods (sperm retrieval and freezing) and female ART methods (oocyte activation, and cryopreservation), and finally embryo ARTs (assisted hatching and cloning techniques) with simple definitions and explanations. Tips to overcome problems are also presented where appropriate along with references for further reading.

This book is a simple primer for students who are involved in courses in embryology or reproductive technologies as part of programs in biology, biotechnology, medicine and physiology.

Table of Contents

  • Gonadal Development and Sex Determination
  • Gonadal Development
  • in a Male Fetus
  • in a Female Fetus
  • Sex Determination
  • Primary Sex Determination
  • Male Reproductive System
  • Introduction
  • the Male Gonad (Testes)
  • Seminiferous Tubules
  • Spermatogenic Process
  • Sertoli Cells
  • Leydig Cells
  • Androgen
  • Functions
  • Control of Testis Functions
  • Neuroendocrine Control
  • Pituitary Gonadotropins
  • Effects of Fsh on Sertoli Cells
  • Effect of Lh on Leydig Cells
  • Androgen
  • Inhibin and Activin
  • Testicular Temperature
  • Mechanism of Testicular Temperature Regulation
  • Cryptorchidism
  • Duct System
  • Intra-Testicular Ducts
  • Extra-Testicular Ducts
  • Epididymis
  • Ductus Deferens (Vasa Deferentia)
  • Accessory Genital Glands
  • Seminal Vesicle
  • Prostate Gland
  • Bulbourethral Gland (Cowper's Gland)
  • Physiology of Male Sexual Act
  • Parasympathetic Activity
  • Sympathetic Activity
  • Somatic Activity
  • Female Reproduction
  • Ovarian Cycle
  • Follicular Phase
  • Ovulation
  • Luteal Phase
  • Reproductive Cycle
  • (Estrus Cycle and Menstrual Cycle)
  • Estrus Cycle
  • Menstrual Cycle
  • Control of Reproductive Cycle
  • the Estrogen Action is Characterized By:
  • Progesterone Also Regulates Fsh and Lh Secretion Through
  • Hormonal Control of Ovarian and Reproductive Cycle
  • Pregnancy
  • Structure of the Ovulated Oocyte
  • Fertilization
  • Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy
  • Embryonic Development and Differentiation
  • Implantation
  • Placentation
  • Chorionic Gonadotropins
  • Placental Lactogen (Pl)
  • Steroid Hormones
  • Relaxin
  • Hormonal Control of Pregnancy
  • Other Hormones
  • Conclusion
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
Chapter 2 Sperm Assessment and Processing
  • Krishnavignesh Lakshmanan, Deepa Onnarakatt, V. M. Thomas, Smisha Sridev, Anuja Gopalakrishnan and Poongothai Muthuswamy Introduction
  • What is Sperm?
  • What is the Difference Between Sperm and Semen?
  • Semen Collection
  • Semen Analysis
  • Macroscopic Investigation
  • Microscopic Investigation
  • Sperm Morphology
  • Biochemical Evaluation
  • Why Semen Analysis Has to be Repeated?
  • Sperm Counting Chambers
  • Semen Analysis by Casa Method
  • Sqa
  • Semen Processing
  • Simple Wash Method
  • Flowchart 2: Simple Wash Method
  • Sperm Migration Based Methods
  • the Method Based on the Specific Density
  • Conclusion
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
Chapter 3 Sperm Freezing
  • Mohammad A. Ibrahim Introduction
  • Effect of Cryopreservation on Sperm Cells
  • Bull Sperm Cryopreservation
  • Bull Sperm Freezing Using Protein-Free Extenders
  • Bull Sperm Cryopreservation Using Nanoparticles and Nanovesicles
  • Bull Sperm Lyophilization
  • Bull Sperm Encapsulation
  • Bull Sperm Multi-Thermal Gradient Freezing
  • Prediction of Bovine Sperm Freezability
  • Bovine Sperm Selection Before Cryopreservation
  • Buck (Goat) Semen Cryopreservation
  • Ram Semen Cryopreservation
  • Stallion Semen Cryopreservation
  • Cryopreservation of Camel-Bull Semen
  • New Technologies to be Adopted for Animal Sperm Cryopreservation
  • Freezing Small Numbers of Sperm
  • Solid Surface Vitrification (Ssv)
  • Sperm Separation Via Electrophoresis
  • Conclusion
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
Chapter 4 Controlled Ovarian Stimulation
  • Firas Al-Rshoud and Tamara Darwish the Ovary
  • Embryology and Ovarian Reserve
  • Ovarian Physiology
  • Follicular Structure and Function
  • the Process of Folliculogenesis, Ovulation, and Luteogenesis
  • Primordial
  • the Primary Phase
  • the Secondary Follicle
  • Ovarian Stimulation in General
  • Who Classification
  • Indications for Ovarian Stimulation
  • Anovulatory Infertility
  • Hypogonadotrophic - Hypogonadism
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (Pcos) and Premature Ovarian Insufficiency
  • Pcos
  • Insulin Sensitizing Agents
  • Antiestrogens (Clomiphine Citrate and Letrozole)
  • Gonadotrophin Therapy
  • Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling
  • Poi
  • Diagnosis and Investigations
  • Subfertility and Poi
  • Ovarian Stimulation (Cos) in Vitro-Fertilization (Ivf) Treatment
  • in Vitro-Fertilization (Ivf) Treatment
  • Complications of Ovarian Stimulation: Ohss, M.P
  • Conclusion
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
Chapter 5 Recent Approaches in Intrauterine Insemination in Livestock
  • Ömer Uçar Introduction
  • Description of Ai
  • Species Concerned
  • Personnel Involved
  • Structure of Sperm and a Summary of Semen Handling (Freezethawing)
  • Sperm Structure
  • Semen Freeze-Thawing
  • Intrauterine Ai Technologies Used
  • Brief History of Reproductive Technologies
  • Main Intrauterine Insemination Techniques
  • Ai Practices in Different Species
  • Ai in Cows
  • the Importance of Rectal Palpation (Experience and Timing)
  • the Importance of Pregnancy Detection (Experience, Method, and Timing)
  • the Importance of Oestrus Detection (Experience, Method, and Timing)
  • the Importance of Semen (Handling, Storage, Thawing, and Breed Chosen)
  • the Importance of Insemination (Experience, Site, Number, and Timing)
  • the Importance of Feeding (Storage, Silage, Supplements, Watering, Undernutrition, Bcs)
  • the Importance of Management (Manure Disposal, Air Conditioning, Welfare, Culture, Exercise, Scratching)
  • the Importance of Health Services (Routine Controls, Vaccination, Culling)
  • the Importance of Reproductive Health (General Health, Libido, Semen, Breeding Soundness, Conception, Pregnancy, Birth, Abortus, Repeat Breeding, Inbreeding)
  • the Importance of Education and Organization (Continuous Training, Certification, Farmer/Breeder Associations, Feedbacks, Financial Supports)
  • Ai in Horses
  • Ai in Buffaloes
  • Ai in Camels
  • Ai in Ewes
  • Ai in Dogs
  • Conclusion and Future Recommendations
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
Chapter 6 Artificial Oocyte Activation

Author

  • Islam M. Saadeldin