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The Global Market for Bio-based Materials 2023-2033

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    Report

  • 1071 Pages
  • January 2023
  • Region: Global
  • Future Markets, Inc
  • ID: 5712573

With the need to supplement global plastics production with sustainable alternatives, and the dearth of available recycled plastic (~9% of the world's plastic is recycled), many producers are turning to bio-based alternatives. Bio-based materials refer to products that mainly consist of a substance (or substances) derived from living matter (biomass) and either occur naturally or are synthesized, or it may refer to products made by processes that use biomass. Materials from biomass sources include bulk chemicals, platform chemicals, solvents, polymers, and biocomposites. The many processes to convert biomass components to value-added products and fuels can be classified broadly as biochemical or thermochemical. In addition, biotechnological processes that rely mainly on plant breeding, fermentation, and conventional enzyme isolation also are used. New bio-based materials that may compete with conventional materials are emerging continually, and the opportunities to use them in existing and novel products are explored in this publication. 

There is growing consumer demand and regulatory push for bio-based chemicals, materials, polymers, plastics, paints, coatings and fuels with high performance, good recyclability and biodegradable properties to underpin transition towards more sustainable manufacturing and products.

The Global Market for Bio-based Materials to 2033 presents a complete picture of the current market and future outlooks, covering bio-based chemicals and feedstocks, materials, polymers, bio-plastics, bio-fuels and bio-based paints and coatings. Contents include:

  • In depth market analysis of bio-based chemical feedstocks, biopolymers, bioplastics, natural fibers and lignin, biofuels and bio-based coatings and paints. 
  • Global production capacities, market volumes and trends, current and forecast to 2033. 
  • Analysis of bio-based chemical including 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA), 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO), Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA), Epichlorohydrin (ECH), Ethylene, Furan derivatives, 5-Chloromethylfurfural (5-CMF), 2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (2,5-FDCA), Furandicarboxylic methyl ester (FDME), Isosorbide,  Itaconic acid, 5 Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), Lactic acid (D-LA), Lactic acid - L-lactic acid (L-LA), Lactide, Levoglucosenone, Levulinic acid, Monoethylene glycol (MEG), Monopropylene glycol (MPG), Muconic acid, Naphtha, 1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5), 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO), Sebacic acid and Succinic acid.
  • Analysis of synthetic bio-polymers and bio-plastics market including Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA), Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET), Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT), Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF), Polyamides (Bio-PA), Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT), Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and copolymers, Polyethylene (Bio-PE), Polypropylene (Bio-PP)
  • Analysis of naturally produced bio-based polymers including Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), Polysaccharides, Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), Cellulose nanocrystals, Cellulose nanofibers,  Protein-based bioplastics, Algal and fungal materials. 
  • Analysis of market for bio-fuels. 
  • Analysis of types of natural fibers including plant fibers, animal fibers including alternative leather, wool, silk fiber and down and polysaccharides. 
  • Markets for natural fibers, including composites, aerospace, automotive, construction & building, sports & leisure, textiles, consumer products and packaging.
  • Production capacities of lignin producers. 
  • In depth analysis of biorefinery lignin production. 
  • Analysis of the market for bio-based, sustainable paints and coatings. 
  • Analysis of types of bio-coatings and paints market.  Including Alkyd coatings, Polyurethane coatings, Epoxy coatings, Acrylate resins, Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA), Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), Cellulose, Rosins, Biobased carbon black, Lignin, Edible coatings, Protein-based biomaterials for coatings, Alginate etc. 
  • Profiles of over 800 companies. Companies profiled include NatureWorks, Total Corbion, Danimer Scientific, Novamont, Mitsubishi Chemicals, Indorama, Braskem, Avantium, Borealis, Cathay, Dupont, BASF, Arkema, DuPont, BASF, AMSilk GmbH,  Loliware, Bolt Threads, Ecovative, Bioform Technologies, Algal Bio, Kraig Biocraft Laboratories, Biotic Circular Technologies Ltd., Full Cycle Bioplastics, Stora Enso Oyj, Spiber, Traceless Materials GmbH, CJ Biomaterials, Natrify, Plastus, Humble Bee Bio, B’ZEOS, Ecovative, Notpla, Smartfiber, Keel Labs and  MycoWorks. 

Table of Contents


1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2 BIO-BASED CHEMICALS AND FEEDSTOCKS
2.1 Types
2.2 Production capacities
2.3 Bio-based adipic acid
2.3.1 Applications and production
2.4 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA)
2.4.1 Applications and production
2.5 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO)
2.5.1 Applications and production
2.6 Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA)
2.6.1 Applications and production
2.7 Epichlorohydrin (ECH)
2.7.1 Applications and production
2.8 Ethylene
2.8.1 Applications and production
2.9 Furfural
2.9.1 Applications and production
2.10 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)
2.10.1 Applications and production
2.11 5-Chloromethylfurfural (5-CMF)
2.11.1 Applications and production
2.12 2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (2,5-FDCA)
2.12.1 Applications and production
2.13 Furandicarboxylic methyl ester (FDME)
2.14 Isosorbide
2.14.1 Applications and production
2.15 Itaconic acid
2.15.1 Applications and production
2.16 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP)
2.16.1 Applications and production
2.17 5 Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF)
2.17.1 Applications and production
2.18 Lactic acid (D-LA)
2.18.1 Applications and production
2.19 Lactic acid - L-lactic acid (L-LA)
2.19.1 Applications and production
2.20 Lactide
2.20.1 Applications and production
2.21 Levoglucosenone
2.21.1 Applications and production
2.22 Levulinic acid
2.22.1 Applications and production
2.23 Monoethylene glycol (MEG)
2.23.1 Applications and production
2.24 Monopropylene glycol (MPG)
2.24.1 Applications and production
2.25 Muconic acid
2.25.1 Applications and production
2.26 Bio-Naphtha
2.26.1 Applications and production
2.26.2 Production capacities
2.26.3 Bio-naptha producers
2.27 Pentamethylene diisocyanate
2.27.1 Applications and production
2.28 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO)
2.28.1 Applications and production
2.29 Sebacic acid
2.29.1 Applications and production
2.30 Succinic acid (SA)
2.30.1 Applications and production

3 BIO-BASED MATERIALS, PLASTICS AND POLYMERS
3.1 Bio-based or renewable plastics
3.1.1 Drop-in bio-based plastics
3.1.2 Novel bio-based plastics
3.2 Biodegradable and compostable plastics
3.2.1 Biodegradability
3.2.2 Compostability
3.3 Advantages and disadvantages
3.4 Types of Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastics
3.5 Market leaders by biobased and/or biodegradable plastic types
3.6 Regional/country production capacities, by main types
3.6.1 Bio-based Polyethylene (Bio-PE) production capacities, by country
3.6.2 Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) production capacities, by country
3.6.3 Bio-based polyamides (Bio-PA) production capacities, by country
3.6.4 Bio-based Polypropylene (Bio-PP) production capacities, by country
3.6.5 Bio-based Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT) production capacities, by country
3.6.6 Bio-based Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) production capacities, by country
3.6.7 Bio-based Polybutylene succinate (PBS) production capacities, by country
3.6.8 Bio-based Polylactic acid (PLA) production capacities, by country
3.6.9 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production capacities, by country
3.6.10 Starch blends production capacities, by country
3.7 SYNTHETIC BIO-BASED POLYMERS
3.7.1 Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA)
3.7.1.1 Market analysis
3.7.1.2 Production
3.7.1.3 Producers and production capacities, current and planned
3.7.1.3.1 Lactic acid producers and production capacities
3.7.1.3.2 PLA producers and production capacities
3.7.1.3.3 Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)
3.7.2 Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET)
3.7.2.1 Market analysis
3.7.2.2 Producers and production capacities
3.7.2.3 Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)
3.7.3 Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT)
3.7.3.1 Market analysis
3.7.3.2 Producers and production capacities
3.7.3.3 Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)
3.7.4 Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF)
3.7.4.1 Market analysis
3.7.4.2 Comparative properties to PET
3.7.4.3 Producers and production capacities
3.7.4.3.1 FDCA and PEF producers and production capacities
3.7.4.3.2 Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).
3.7.5 Polyamides (Bio-PA)
3.7.5.1 Market analysis
3.7.5.2 Producers and production capacities
3.7.5.3 Polyamides (Bio-PA) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)
3.7.6 Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT)
3.7.6.1 Market analysis
3.7.6.2 Producers and production capacities
3.7.6.3 Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)
3.7.7 Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and copolymers
3.7.7.1 Market analysis
3.7.7.2 Producers and production capacities
3.7.7.3 Polybutylene succinate (PBS) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)
3.7.8 Polyethylene (Bio-PE)
3.7.8.1 Market analysis
3.7.8.2 Producers and production capacities
3.7.8.3 Polyethylene (Bio-PE) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).
3.7.9 Polypropylene (Bio-PP)
3.7.9.1 Market analysis
3.7.9.2 Producers and production capacities
3.7.9.3 Polypropylene (Bio-PP) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)
3.8 NATURAL BIO-BASED POLYMERS
3.8.1 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)
3.8.1.1 Technology description
3.8.1.2 Types
3.8.1.2.1 PHB
3.8.1.2.2 PHBV
3.8.1.3 Synthesis and production processes
3.8.1.4 Market analysis
3.8.1.5 Commercially available PHAs
3.8.1.6 Markets for PHAs
3.8.1.6.1 Packaging
3.8.1.6.2 Cosmetics
3.8.1.6.2.1 PHA microspheres
3.8.1.6.3 Medical
3.8.1.6.3.1 Tissue engineering
3.8.1.6.3.2 Drug delivery
3.8.1.6.4 Agriculture
3.8.1.6.4.1 Mulch film
3.8.1.6.4.2 Grow bags
3.8.1.7 Producers and production capacities
3.8.1.8 PHA production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)
3.8.2 Polysaccharides
3.8.2.1 Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)
3.8.2.1.1 Market analysis
3.8.2.1.2 Producers and production capacities
3.8.2.2 Nanocellulose
3.8.2.2.1 Cellulose nanocrystals
3.8.2.2.1.1 Synthesis
3.8.2.2.1.2 Properties
3.8.2.2.1.3 Production
3.8.2.2.1.4 Applications
3.8.2.2.1.5 Market analysis
3.8.2.2.1.6 Producers and production capacities
3.8.2.2.2 Cellulose nanofibers
3.8.2.2.2.1 Applications
3.8.2.2.2.2 Market analysis
3.8.2.2.2.3 Producers and production capacities
3.8.2.2.3 Bacterial Nanocellulose (BNC)
3.8.2.2.3.1 Production
3.8.2.2.3.2 Applications
3.8.3 Protein-based bioplastics
3.8.3.1 Types, applications and producers
3.8.4 Algal and fungal
3.8.4.1 Algal
3.8.4.1.1 Advantages
3.8.4.1.2 Production
3.8.4.1.3 Producers
3.8.4.2 Mycelium
3.8.4.2.1 Properties
3.8.4.2.2 Applications
3.8.4.2.3 Commercialization
3.8.5 Chitosan
3.8.5.1 Technology description
3.9 PRODUCTION OF BIOBASED AND BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS, BY REGION
3.9.1 North America
3.9.2 Europe
3.9.3 Asia-Pacific
3.9.3.1 China
3.9.3.2 Japan
3.9.3.3 Thailand
3.9.3.4 Indonesia
3.9.4 Latin America
3.10 MARKET SEGMENTATION OF BIOPLASTICS
3.10.1 Packaging
3.10.1.1 Processes for bioplastics in packaging
3.10.1.2 Applications
3.10.1.3 Flexible packaging
3.10.1.3.1 Production volumes 2019-2033
3.10.1.4 Rigid packaging
3.10.1.4.1 Production volumes 2019-2033
3.10.2 Consumer products
3.10.2.1 Applications
3.10.3 Automotive
3.10.3.1 Applications
3.10.3.2 Production capacities
3.10.4 Building & construction
3.10.4.1 Applications
3.10.4.2 Production capacities
3.10.5 Textiles
3.10.5.1 Apparel
3.10.5.2 Footwear
3.10.5.3 Medical textiles
3.10.5.4 Production capacities
3.10.6 Electronics
3.10.6.1 Applications
3.10.6.2 Production capacities
3.10.7 Agriculture and horticulture
3.10.7.1 Production capacities
3.11 NATURAL FIBERS
3.11.1 Manufacturing method, matrix materials and applications of natural fibers
3.11.2 Advantages of natural fibers
3.11.3 Commercially available next-gen natural fiber products
3.11.4 Market drivers for next-gen natural fibers
3.11.5 Challenges
3.11.6 Plants (cellulose, lignocellulose)
3.11.6.1 Seed fibers
3.11.6.1.1 Cotton
3.11.6.1.1.1 Production volumes 2018-2033
3.11.6.1.2 Kapok
3.11.6.1.2.1 Production volumes 2018-2033
3.11.6.1.3 Luffa
3.11.6.2 Bast fibers
3.11.6.2.1 Jute
3.11.6.2.2 Production volumes 2018-2033
3.11.6.2.2.1 Hemp
3.11.6.2.2.2 Production volumes 2018-2033
3.11.6.2.3 Flax
3.11.6.2.3.1 Production volumes 2018-2033
3.11.6.2.4 Ramie
3.11.6.2.4.1 Production volumes 2018-2033
3.11.6.2.5 Kenaf
3.11.6.2.5.1 Production volumes 2018-2033
3.11.6.3 Leaf fibers
3.11.6.3.1 Sisal
3.11.6.3.1.1 Production volumes 2018-2033
3.11.6.3.2 Abaca
3.11.6.3.2.1 Production volumes 2018-2033
3.11.6.4 Fruit fibers
3.11.6.4.1 Coir
3.11.6.4.1.1 Production volumes 2018-2033
3.11.6.4.2 Banana
3.11.6.4.2.1 Production volumes 2018-2033
3.11.6.4.3 Pineapple
3.11.6.5 Stalk fibers from agricultural residues
3.11.6.5.1 Rice fiber
3.11.6.5.2 Corn
3.11.6.6 Cane, grasses and reed
3.11.6.6.1 Switch grass
3.11.6.6.2 Sugarcane (agricultural residues)
3.11.6.6.3 Bamboo
3.11.6.6.3.1 Production volumes 2018-2033
3.11.6.6.4 Fresh grass (green biorefinery)
3.11.6.7 Modified natural polymers
3.11.6.7.1 Mycelium
3.11.6.7.2 Chitosan
3.11.6.7.3 Alginate
3.11.7 Animal (fibrous protein)
3.11.7.1 Wool
3.11.7.1.1 Alternative wool materials
3.11.7.1.2 Producers
3.11.7.2 Silk fiber
3.11.7.2.1 Alternative silk materials
3.11.7.2.1.1 Producers
3.11.7.3 Leather
3.11.7.3.1 Alternative leather materials
3.11.7.3.1.1 Producers
3.11.7.4 Fur
3.11.7.4.1 Producers
3.11.7.5 Down
3.11.7.5.1 Alternative down materials
3.11.7.5.1.1 Producers
3.11.8 MARKETS FOR NATURAL FIBERS
3.11.8.1 Composites
3.11.8.2 Applications
3.11.8.3 Natural fiber injection moulding compounds
3.11.8.3.1 Properties
3.11.8.3.2 Applications
3.11.8.4 Non-woven natural fiber mat composites
3.11.8.4.1 Automotive
3.11.8.4.2 Applications
3.11.8.5 Aligned natural fiber-reinforced composites
3.11.8.6 Natural fiber biobased polymer compounds
3.11.8.7 Natural fiber biobased polymer non-woven mats
3.11.8.7.1 Flax
3.11.8.7.2 Kenaf
3.11.8.8 Natural fiber thermoset bioresin composites
3.11.8.9 Aerospace
3.11.8.9.1 Market overview
3.11.8.10 Automotive
3.11.8.10.1 Market overview
3.11.8.10.2 Applications of natural fibers
3.11.8.11 Building/construction
3.11.8.11.1 Market overview
3.11.8.11.2 Applications of natural fibers
3.11.8.12 Sports and leisure
3.11.8.12.1 Market overview
3.11.8.13 Textiles
3.11.8.13.1 Market overview
3.11.8.13.2 Consumer apparel
3.11.8.13.3 Geotextiles
3.11.8.14 Packaging
3.11.8.14.1 Market overview
3.11.9 NATURAL FIBERS GLOBAL PRODUCTION
3.11.9.1 Overall global fibers market
3.11.9.2 Plant-based fiber production
3.11.9.3 Animal-based natural fiber production
3.12 LIGNIN
3.12.1 INTRODUCTION
3.12.1.1 What is lignin?
3.12.1.1.1 Lignin structure
3.12.1.2 Types of lignin
3.12.1.2.1 Sulfur containing lignin
3.12.1.2.2 Sulfur-free lignin from biorefinery process
3.12.1.3 Properties
3.12.1.4 The lignocellulose biorefinery
3.12.1.5 Markets and applications
3.12.1.6 Challenges for using lignin
3.12.2 LIGNIN PRODUCTON PROCESSES
3.12.2.1 Lignosulphonates
3.12.2.2 Kraft Lignin
3.12.2.2.1 LignoBoost process
3.12.2.2.2 LignoForce method
3.12.2.2.3 Sequential Liquid Lignin Recovery and Purification
3.12.2.2.4 A-Recovery
3.12.2.3 Soda lignin
3.12.2.4 Biorefinery lignin
3.12.2.4.1 Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and processes
3.12.2.5 Organosolv lignins
3.12.2.6 Hydrolytic lignin
3.12.3 MARKETS FOR LIGNIN
3.12.3.1 Market drivers and trends for lignin
3.12.3.2 Production capacities
3.12.3.2.1 Technical lignin availability (dry ton/y)
3.12.3.2.2 Biomass conversion (Biorefinery)
3.12.3.3 Estimated consumption of lignin
3.12.3.4 Prices
3.12.3.5 Heat and power energy
3.12.3.6 Pyrolysis and syngas
3.12.3.7 Aromatic compounds
3.12.3.7.1 Benzene, toluene and xylene
3.12.3.7.2 Phenol and phenolic resins
3.12.3.7.3 Vanillin
3.12.3.8 Plastics and polymers
3.12.3.9 Hydrogels
3.12.3.10 Carbon materials
3.12.3.10.1 Carbon black
3.12.3.10.2 Activated carbons
3.12.3.10.3 Carbon fiber
3.12.3.11 Concrete
3.12.3.12 Rubber
3.12.3.13 Biofuels
3.12.3.14 Bitumen and Asphalt
3.12.3.15 Oil and gas
3.12.3.16 Energy storage
3.12.3.16.1 Supercapacitors
3.12.3.16.2 Anodes for lithium-ion batteries
3.12.3.16.3 Gel electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries
3.12.3.16.4 Binders for lithium-ion batteries
3.12.3.16.5 Cathodes for lithium-ion batteries
3.12.3.16.6 Sodium-ion batteries
3.12.3.17 Binders, emulsifiers and dispersants
3.12.3.18 Chelating agents
3.12.3.19 Ceramics
3.12.3.20 Automotive interiors
3.12.3.21 Fire retardants
3.12.3.22 Antioxidants
3.12.3.23 Lubricants
3.12.3.24 Dust control
3.13 BIO-BASED MATERIALS, PLASTICS AND POLYMERS COMPANY PROFILES (492 company profiles)

4 BIO-BASED FUELS
4.1 BIO-FUELS
4.1.1 The biofuels market
4.1.2 Types
4.1.2.1 Solid Biofuels
4.1.2.2 Liquid Biofuels
4.1.2.3 Gaseous Biofuels
4.1.2.4 Conventional Biofuels
4.1.2.5 Advanced Biofuels
4.1.3 Feedstocks
4.1.3.1 First-Generation Feedstocks
4.1.3.2 Second-Generation Feedstocks
4.1.3.2.1 Lignocellulosic wastes and residues
4.1.3.2.2 Biorefinery lignin
4.1.3.3 Third-Generation Feedstocks
4.1.3.3.1 Algal biofuels
4.1.3.4 Fourth-Generation Feedstocks
4.1.3.4.1 Advantages and disadvantages, by generation
4.1.3.5 Market demand
4.1.4 Bioethanol
4.1.5 Bio-jet (bio-aviation) fuels
4.1.5.1 Description
4.1.5.2 Global market
4.1.5.3 Production pathways
4.1.5.4 Costs
4.1.5.5 Biojet fuel production capacities
4.1.5.6 Challenges
4.1.6 Biomass-based diesel
4.1.6.1 Biodiesel
4.1.6.1.1 Production
4.1.6.1.2 Global market
4.1.6.2 Renewable diesel
4.1.6.2.1 Production
4.1.6.2.2 Global market
4.1.7 Syngas
4.1.8 Biogas and biomethane
4.1.8.1 Feedstocks
4.1.9 Biobutanol
4.1.9.1 Production
4.2 ELECTROFUELS (E-FUELS)
4.2.1 Introduction
4.2.1.1 Benefits of e-fuels
4.2.2 Feedstocks
4.2.2.1 Hydrogen electrolysis
4.2.2.2 CO2 capture
4.2.3 Production
4.2.4 Electrolysers
4.2.4.1 Commercial alkaline electrolyser cells (AECs)
4.2.4.2 PEM electrolysers (PEMEC)
4.2.4.3 High-temperature solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs)
4.2.5 Direct Air Capture (DAC)
4.2.5.1 Technologies
4.2.5.2 Markets for DAC
4.2.5.3 Costs
4.2.5.4 Challenges
4.2.5.5 Companies and production
4.2.5.6 CO2 capture from point sources
4.2.6 Costs
4.2.7 Market challenges
4.2.8 Companies
4.3 GREEN AMMONIA
4.3.1 Production
4.3.1.1 Decarbonisation of ammonia production
4.3.1.2 Green ammonia projects
4.3.2 Green ammonia synthesis methods
4.3.2.1 Haber-Bosch process
4.3.2.2 Biological nitrogen fixation
4.3.2.3 Electrochemical production
4.3.2.4 Chemical looping processes
4.3.3 Blue ammonia
4.3.3.1 Blue ammonia projects
4.3.4 Markets and applications
4.3.4.1 Chemical energy storage
4.3.4.1.1 Ammonia fuel cells
4.3.4.2 Marine fuel
4.3.5 Costs
4.3.6 Estimated market demand
4.3.7 Companies and projects
4.4 BIO-BASED FUELS COMPANY PROFILES (114 company profiles)

5 BIO-BASED PAINTS AND COATINGS
5.1 The global paints and coatings market
5.2 Bio-based paints and coatings
5.3 Challenges using bio-based paints and coatings
5.4 Types of bio-based coatings and materials
5.4.1 Alkyd coatings
5.4.1.1 Alkyd resin properties
5.4.1.2 Biobased alkyd coatings
5.4.1.3 Products
5.4.2 Polyurethane coatings
5.4.2.1 Properties
5.4.2.2 Biobased polyurethane coatings
5.4.2.3 Products
5.4.3 Epoxy coatings
5.4.3.1 Properties
5.4.3.2 Biobased epoxy coatings
5.4.3.3 Products
5.4.4 Acrylate resins
5.4.4.1 Properties
5.4.4.2 Biobased acrylates
5.4.4.3 Products
5.4.5 Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA)
5.4.5.1 Properties
5.4.5.2 Bio-PLA coatings and films
5.4.6 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)
5.4.6.1 Properties
5.4.6.2 PHA coatings
5.4.6.3 Commercially available PHAs
5.4.7 Cellulose
5.4.7.1 Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)
5.4.7.1.1 Properties
5.4.7.1.2 Applications in paints and coatings
5.4.7.2 Cellulose nanofibers
5.4.7.2.1 Properties
5.4.7.2.2 Product developers
5.4.7.3 Cellulose nanocrystals
5.4.7.4 Bacterial Nanocellulose (BNC)
5.4.8 Rosins
5.4.9 Biobased carbon black
5.4.9.1 Lignin-based
5.4.9.2 Algae-based
5.4.10 Lignin
5.4.10.1 Application in coatings
5.4.11 Edible coatings
5.4.12 Protein-based biomaterials for coatings
5.4.12.1 Plant derived proteins
5.4.12.2 Animal origin proteins
5.4.13 Alginate
5.5 Market for bio-based paints and coatings
5.5.1 Global market revenues to 2033, total
5.5.2 Global market revenues to 2033, by market
5.6 BIO-BASED PAINTS AND COATINGS COMPANY PROFILES (130 company profiles)

6 REFERENCES
List of Tables
Table 1. List of Bio-based chemicals.
Table 2. Lactide applications.
Table 3. Biobased MEG producers capacities.
Table 4. Bio-naphtha market value chain.
Table 5. Bio-naptha producers and production capacities.
Table 6. Type of biodegradation.
Table 7. Advantages and disadvantages of biobased plastics compared to conventional plastics.
Table 8. Types of Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastics, applications.
Table 9. Market leader by Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastic types.
Table 10. Bioplastics regional production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Table 11. Polylactic acid (PLA) market analysis-manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.
Table 12. Lactic acid producers and production capacities.
Table 13. PLA producers and production capacities.
Table 14. Planned PLA capacity expansions in China.
Table 15. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) market analysis- manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.
Table 16. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) producers and production capacities,
Table 17. Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) market analysis-manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.
Table 18. Production capacities of Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT), by leading producers.
Table 19. Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) market analysis-manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.
Table 20. PEF vs. PET.
Table 21. FDCA and PEF producers.
Table 22. Bio-based polyamides (Bio-PA) market analysis - manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.
Table 23. Leading Bio-PA producers production capacities.
Table 24. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) market analysis- manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.
Table 25. Leading PBAT producers, production capacities and brands.
Table 26. Bio-PBS market analysis-manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.
Table 27. Leading PBS producers and production capacities.
Table 28. Bio-based Polyethylene (Bio-PE) market analysis- manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.
Table 29. Leading Bio-PE producers.
Table 30. Bio-PP market analysis- manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.
Table 31. Leading Bio-PP producers and capacities.
Table 32.Types of PHAs and properties.
Table 33. Comparison of the physical properties of different PHAs with conventional petroleum-based polymers.
Table 34. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) extraction methods.
Table 35. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) market analysis.
Table 36. Commercially available PHAs.
Table 37. Markets and applications for PHAs.
Table 38. Applications, advantages and disadvantages of PHAs in packaging.
Table 39. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producers.
Table 40. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) market analysis-manufacture, advantages, disadvantages and applications.
Table 41. Leading MFC producers and capacities.
Table 42. Synthesis methods for cellulose nanocrystals (CNC).
Table 43. CNC sources, size and yield.
Table 44. CNC properties.
Table 45. Mechanical properties of CNC and other reinforcement materials.
Table 46. Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC).
Table 47. Cellulose nanocrystals analysis.
Table 48: Cellulose nanocrystal production capacities and production process, by producer.
Table 49. Applications of cellulose nanofibers (CNF).
Table 50. Cellulose nanofibers market analysis.
Table 51. CNF production capacities (by type, wet or dry) and production process, by producer, metric tonnes.
Table 52. Applications of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC).
Table 53. Types of protein based-bioplastics, applications and companies.
Table 54. Types of algal and fungal based-bioplastics, applications and companies.
Table 55. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size.
Table 56. Companies developing algal-based bioplastics.
Table 57. Overview of mycelium fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 58. Companies developing mycelium-based bioplastics.
Table 59. Overview of chitosan-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 60. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics in 2019-2033, by region, tons.
Table 61. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in North America.
Table 62. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Europe.
Table 63. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Asia-Pacific.
Table 64. Biobased and sustainable plastics producers in Latin America.
Table 65. Processes for bioplastics in packaging.
Table 66. Comparison of bioplastics’ (PLA and PHAs) properties to other common polymers used in product packaging.
Table 67. Typical applications for bioplastics in flexible packaging.
Table 68. Typical applications for bioplastics in rigid packaging.
Table 69. Types of next-gen natural fibers.
Table 70. Application, manufacturing method, and matrix materials of natural fibers.
Table 71. Typical properties of natural fibers.
Table 72. Commercially available next-gen natural fiber products.
Table 73. Market drivers for natural fibers.
Table 74. Overview of cotton fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 75. Overview of kapok fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 76. Overview of luffa fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 77. Overview of jute fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 78. Overview of hemp fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 79. Overview of flax fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 80. Overview of ramie fibers- description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 81. Overview of kenaf fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 82. Overview of sisal leaf fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 83. Overview of abaca fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 84. Overview of coir fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 85. Overview of banana fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 86. Overview of pineapple fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 87. Overview of rice fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 88. Overview of corn fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 89. Overview of switch grass fibers-description, properties and applications.
Table 90. Overview of sugarcane fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and application and market size.
Table 91. Overview of bamboo fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 92. Overview of mycelium fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 93. Overview of chitosan fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 94. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size.
Table 95. Overview of wool fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 96. Alternative wool materials producers.
Table 97. Overview of silk fibers-description, properties, application and market size.
Table 98. Alternative silk materials producers.
Table 99. Alternative leather materials producers.
Table 100. Next-gen fur producers.
Table 101. Alternative down materials producers.
Table 102. Applications of natural fiber composites.
Table 103. Typical properties of short natural fiber-thermoplastic composites.
Table 104. Properties of non-woven natural fiber mat composites.
Table 105. Properties of aligned natural fiber composites.
Table 106. Properties of natural fiber-bio-based polymer compounds.
Table 107. Properties of natural fiber-bio-based polymer non-woven mats.
Table 108. Natural fibers in the aerospace sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.
Table 109. Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite in the automotive market.
Table 110. Natural fibers in the aerospace sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.
Table 111. Applications of natural fibers in the automotive industry.
Table 112. Natural fibers in the building/construction sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.
Table 113. Applications of natural fibers in the building/construction sector.
Table 114. Natural fibers in the sports and leisure sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.
Table 115. Natural fibers in the textiles sector- market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.
Table 116. Natural fibers in the packaging sector-market drivers, applications and challenges for NF use.
Table 117. Technical lignin types and applications.
Table 118. Classification of technical lignins.
Table 119. Lignin content of selected biomass.
Table 120. Properties of lignins and their applications.
Table 121. Example markets and applications for lignin.
Table 122. Processes for lignin production.
Table 123. Biorefinery feedstocks.
Table 124. Comparison of pulping and biorefinery lignins.
Table 125. Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and processes
Table 126. Market drivers and trends for lignin.
Table 127. Production capacities of technical lignin producers.
Table 128. Production capacities of biorefinery lignin producers.
Table 129. Estimated consumption of lignin, 2019-2033 (000 MT).
Table 130. Prices of benzene, toluene, xylene and their derivatives.
Table 131. Application of lignin in plastics and polymers.
Table 132. Lignin-derived anodes in lithium batteries.
Table 133. Application of lignin in binders, emulsifiers and dispersants.
Table 134. Lactips plastic pellets.
Table 135. Oji Holdings CNF products.
Table 136. Categories and examples of solid biofuel.
Table 137. Comparison of biofuels and e-fuels to fossil and electricity.
Table 138. Biorefinery feedstocks.
Table 139. Feedstock conversion pathways.
Table 140. First-Generation Feedstocks.
Table 141. Lignocellulosic ethanol plants and capacities.
Table 142. Comparison of pulping and biorefinery lignins.
Table 143. Commercial and pre-commercial biorefinery lignin production facilities and processes
Table 144. Operating and planned lignocellulosic biorefineries and industrial flue gas-to-ethanol.
Table 145. Properties of microalgae and macroalgae.
Table 146. Yield of algae and other biodiesel crops.
Table 147. Advantages and disadvantages of biofuels, by generation.
Table 148. Advantages and disadvantages of biojet fuel
Table 149. Production pathways for bio-jet fuel.
Table 150. Current and announced biojet fuel facilities and capacities.
Table 151, Biodiesel production techniques.
Table 152. Biodiesel by generation.
Table 153. Biogas feedstocks.
Table 154. Applications of e-fuels, by type.
Table 155. Overview of e-fuels.
Table 156. Benefits of e-fuels.
Table 157. Main characteristics of different electrolyzer technologies.
Table 158. Advantages and disadvantages of DAC.
Table 159. DAC companies and technologies.
Table 160. Markets for DAC.
Table 161. Cost estimates of DAC.
Table 162. Challenges for DAC technology.
Table 163. DAC technology developers and production.
Table 164. Market challenges for e-fuels.
Table 165. E-fuels companies.
Table 166. Green ammonia projects (current and planned).
Table 167. Blue ammonia projects.
Table 168. Ammonia fuel cell technologies.
Table 169. Market overview of green ammonia in marine fuel.
Table 170. Summary of marine alternative fuels.
Table 171. Estimated costs for different types of ammonia.
Table 172. Main players in green ammonia.
Table 173. Granbio Nanocellulose Processes.
Table 174. Types of alkyd resins and properties.
Table 175. Market summary for biobased alkyd coatings-raw materials, advantages, disadvantages, applications and producers.
Table 176. Biobased alkyd coating products.
Table 177. Types of polyols.
Table 178. Polyol producers.
Table 179. Biobased polyurethane coating products.
Table 180. Market summary for biobased epoxy resins.
Table 181. Biobased polyurethane coating products.
Table 182. Biobased acrylate resin products.
Table 183. Polylactic acid (PLA) market analysis.
Table 184. PLA producers and production capacities.
Table 185. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) market analysis.
Table 186.Types of PHAs and properties.
Table 187. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producers.
Table 188. Commercially available PHAs.
Table 189. Properties of micro/nanocellulose, by type.
Table 190. Types of nanocellulose.
Table 191: MFC production capacities (by type, wet or dry) and production process, by producer, metric tonnes.
Table 192. Market overview for cellulose nanofibers in paints and coatings.
Table 193. Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in paints and coatings.
Table 194. CNC properties.
Table 195: Cellulose nanocrystal capacities (by type, wet or dry) and production process, by producer, metric tonnes.
Table 196. Edible coatings market summary.
Table 197. Types of protein based-biomaterials, applications and companies.
Table 198. Overview of alginate-description, properties, application and market size.
Table 199. Global market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2033 (billions USD).
Table 200. Market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2033 (billions USD), conservative estimate.
Table 201. Market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2033 (billions USD), high estimate.
Table 202. Oji Holdings CNF products.

List of Figures
Figure 1. Bio-based chemicals and feedstocks production capacities, 2018-2033.
Figure 2. Overview of Toray process. Overview of process
Figure 3. Production capacities for 11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA)
Figure 4. 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 5. Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 6. Epichlorohydrin production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 7. Ethylene production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 8. Potential industrial uses of 3-hydroxypropanoic acid.
Figure 9. L-lactic acid (L-LA) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 10. Lactide production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 11. Bio-MEG production capacities, 2018-2033.
Figure 12. Bio-MPG production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 13. Biobased naphtha production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 14. 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 15. Sebacic acid production capacities, 2018-2033 (tonnes).
Figure 16. Coca-Cola PlantBottle®.
Figure 17. Interrelationship between conventional, bio-based and biodegradable plastics.
Figure 18. Bioplastics regional production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 19. Bio-based Polyethylene (Bio-PE), 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 20. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033
Figure 21. Bio-based polyamides (Bio-PA) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 22. Bio-based Polypropylene (Bio-PP) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 23. Bio-based Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 24. Bio-based Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 25. Bio-based Polybutylene succinate (PBS) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 26. Bio-based Polylactic acid (PLA) production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 27. PHA production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 28. Starch blends production capacities, 1,000 tons, 2019-2033.
Figure 29. Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).
Figure 30. Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons)
Figure 31. Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).
Figure 32. Production capacities of Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) to 2025.
Figure 33. Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).
Figure 34. Polyamides (Bio-PA) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).
Figure 35. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).
Figure 36. Polybutylene succinate (PBS) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).
Figure 37. Polyethylene (Bio-PE) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).
Figure 38. Polypropylene (Bio-PP) production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).
Figure 39. PHA family.
Figure 40. PHA production capacities 2019-2033 (1,000 tons).
Figure 41. TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals.
Figure 42. CNC preparation.
Figure 43. Extracting CNC from trees.
Figure 44. CNC slurry.
Figure 45. CNF gel.
Figure 46. Bacterial nanocellulose shapes
Figure 47. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix.
Figure 48. Typical structure of mycelium-based foam.
Figure 49. Commercial mycelium composite construction materials.
Figure 50. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2020.
Figure 51. Global production capacities of biobased and sustainable plastics 2025.
Figure 52. Global production capacities for biobased and sustainable plastics by end user market 2019-2033, 1,000 tons.
Figure 53. PHA bioplastics products.
Figure 54. The global market for biobased and biodegradable plastics for flexible packaging 2019-2033 (‘000 tonnes).
Figure 55. Bioplastics for rigid packaging, 2019-2033 (‘000 tonnes).
Figure 56. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in consumer products 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.
Figure 57. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in automotive 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.
Figure 58. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in building and construction 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.
Figure 59. AlgiKicks sneaker, made with the Algiknit biopolymer gel.
Figure 60. Reebok's [REE]GROW running shoes.
Figure 61. Camper Runner K21.
Figure 62. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in textiles 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.
Figure 63. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in electronics 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.
Figure 64. Biodegradable mulch films.
Figure 65. Global production capacities for biobased and biodegradable plastics in agriculture 2019-2033, in 1,000 tons.
Figure 66. Types of natural fibers.
Figure 67. Absolut natural based fiber bottle cap.
Figure 68. Adidas algae-ink tees.
Figure 69. Carlsberg natural fiber beer bottle.
Figure 70. Miratex watch bands.
Figure 71. Adidas Made with Nature Ultraboost 22.
Figure 72. PUMA RE:SUEDE sneaker
Figure 73. Cotton production volume 2018-2033 (Million MT).
Figure 74. Kapok production volume 2018-2033 (MT).
Figure 75. Luffa cylindrica fiber.
Figure 76. Jute production volume 2018-2033 (Million MT).
Figure 77. Hemp fiber production volume 2018-2033 ( MT).
Figure 78. Flax fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).
Figure 79. Ramie fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).
Figure 80. Kenaf fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).
Figure 81. Sisal fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).
Figure 82. Abaca fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).
Figure 83. Coir fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MILLION MT).
Figure 84. Banana fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MT).
Figure 85. Pineapple fiber.
Figure 86. A bag made with pineapple biomaterial from the H&M Conscious Collection 2019.
Figure 87. Bamboo fiber production volume 2018-2033 (MILLION MT).
Figure 88. Typical structure of mycelium-based foam.
Figure 89. Commercial mycelium composite construction materials.
Figure 90. Frayme Mylo™?.
Figure 91. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix.
Figure 92. Conceptual landscape of next-gen leather materials.
Figure 93. Hemp fibers combined with PP in car door panel.
Figure 94. Car door produced from Hemp fiber.
Figure 95. Mercedes-Benz components containing natural fibers.
Figure 96. AlgiKicks sneaker, made with the Algiknit biopolymer gel.
Figure 97. Coir mats for erosion control.
Figure 98. Global fiber production in 2021, by fiber type, million MT and %.
Figure 99. Global fiber production (million MT) to 2020-2033.
Figure 100. Plant-based fiber production 2018-2033, by fiber type, MT.
Figure 101. Animal based fiber production 2018-2033, by fiber type, million MT.
Figure 102. High purity lignin.
Figure 103. Lignocellulose architecture.
Figure 104. Extraction processes to separate lignin from lignocellulosic biomass and corresponding technical lignins.
Figure 105. The lignocellulose biorefinery.
Figure 106. LignoBoost process.
Figure 107. LignoForce system for lignin recovery from black liquor.
Figure 108. Sequential liquid-lignin recovery and purification (SLPR) system.
Figure 109. A-Recovery chemical recovery concept.
Figure 110. Schematic of a biorefinery for production of carriers and chemicals.
Figure 111. Organosolv lignin.
Figure 112. Hydrolytic lignin powder.
Figure 113. Estimated consumption of lignin, 2019-2033 (000 MT).
Figure 114. Schematic of WISA plywood home.
Figure 115. Lignin based activated carbon.
Figure 116. Lignin/celluose precursor.
Figure 117. Pluumo.
Figure 118. ANDRITZ Lignin Recovery process.
Figure 119. Anpoly cellulose nanofiber hydrogel.
Figure 120. MEDICELLU™.
Figure 121. Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet.
Figure 122. Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric.
Figure 123. CNF nonwoven fabric.
Figure 124. Roof frame made of natural fiber.
Figure 125. Beyond Leather Materials product.
Figure 126. BIOLO e-commerce mailer bag made from PHA.
Figure 127. Reusable and recyclable foodservice cups, lids, and straws from Joinease Hong Kong Ltd., made with plant-based NuPlastiQ BioPolymer from BioLogiQ, Inc.
Figure 128. Fiber-based screw cap.
Figure 129. formicobio™ technology.
Figure 130. nanoforest-S.
Figure 131. nanoforest-PDP.
Figure 132. nanoforest-MB.
Figure 133. sunliquid® production process.
Figure 134. CuanSave film.
Figure 135. Celish.
Figure 136. Trunk lid incorporating CNF.
Figure 137. ELLEX products.
Figure 138. CNF-reinforced PP compounds.
Figure 139. Kirekira! toilet wipes.
Figure 140. Color CNF.
Figure 141. Rheocrysta spray.
Figure 142. DKS CNF products.
Figure 143. Domsjö process.
Figure 144. Mushroom leather.
Figure 145. CNF based on citrus peel.
Figure 146. Citrus cellulose nanofiber.
Figure 147. Filler Bank CNC products.
Figure 148. Fibers on kapok tree and after processing.
Figure 149. TMP-Bio Process.
Figure 150. Flow chart of the lignocellulose biorefinery pilot plant in Leuna.
Figure 151. Water-repellent cellulose.
Figure 152. Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE).
Figure 153. PHA production process.
Figure 154. CNF products from Furukawa Electric.
Figure 155. AVAPTM process.
Figure 156. GreenPower ™ process.
Figure 157. Cutlery samples (spoon, knife, fork) made of nano cellulose and biodegradable plastic composite materials.
Figure 158. Non-aqueous CNF dispersion "Senaf" (Photo shows 5% of plasticizer).
Figure 159. CNF gel.
Figure 160. Block nanocellulose material.
Figure 161. CNF products developed by Hokuetsu.
Figure 162. Marine leather products.
Figure 163. Inner Mettle Milk products.
Figure 164. Kami Shoji CNF products.
Figure 165. Dual Graft System.
Figure 166. Engine cover utilizing Kao CNF composite resins.
Figure 167. Acrylic resin blended with modified CNF (fluid) and its molded product (transparent film), and image obtained with AFM (CNF 10wt% blended).
Figure 168. Kel Labs yarn.
Figure 169. 0.3% aqueous dispersion of sulfated esterified CNF and dried transparent film (front side).
Figure 170. BioFlex process.
Figure 171. Nike Algae Ink graphic tee.
Figure 172. LX Process.
Figure 173. Made of Air's HexChar panels.
Figure 174. TransLeather.
Figure 175. Chitin nanofiber product.
Figure 176. Marusumi Paper cellulose nanofiber products.
Figure 177. FibriMa cellulose nanofiber powder.545
Figure 178. METNIN™ Lignin refining technology.
Figure 179. IPA synthesis method.
Figure 180. MOGU-Wave panels.
Figure 181. CNF slurries.
Figure 182. Range of CNF products.
Figure 183. Reishi.
Figure 184. Compostable water pod.
Figure 185. Leather made from leaves.
Figure 186. Nike shoe with beLEAF™.
Figure 187. CNF clear sheets.
Figure 188. Oji Holdings CNF polycarbonate product.
Figure 189. Enfinity cellulosic ethanol technology process.
Figure 190. Fabric consisting of 70 per cent wool and 30 per cent Qmilk.
Figure 191. XCNF.
Figure 192: Plantrose process.
Figure 193. LOVR hemp leather.
Figure 194. CNF insulation flat plates.
Figure 195. Hansa lignin.
Figure 196. Manufacturing process for STARCEL.
Figure 197. Manufacturing process for STARCEL.
Figure 198. 3D printed cellulose shoe.
Figure 199. Lyocell process.
Figure 200. North Face Spiber Moon Parka.
Figure 201. PANGAIA LAB NXT GEN Hoodie.
Figure 202. Spider silk production.
Figure 203. Stora Enso lignin battery materials.
Figure 204. 2 wt.% CNF suspension.
Figure 205. BiNFi-s Dry Powder.
Figure 206. BiNFi-s Dry Powder and Propylene (PP) Complex Pellet.
Figure 207. Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material.
Figure 208. Sulapac cosmetics containers.
Figure 209. Sulzer equipment for PLA polymerization processing.
Figure 210. Teijin bioplastic film for door handles.
Figure 211. Corbion FDCA production process.
Figure 212. Comparison of weight reduction effect using CNF.
Figure 213. CNF resin products.
Figure 214. UPM biorefinery process.
Figure 215. Vegea production process.
Figure 216. The Proesa® Process.
Figure 217. Goldilocks process and applications.
Figure 218. Visolis’ Hybrid Bio-Thermocatalytic Process.
Figure 219. HefCel-coated wood (left) and untreated wood (right) after 30 seconds flame test.
Figure 220. Worn Again products.
Figure 221. Zelfo Technology GmbH CNF production process.
Figure 222. Schematic of a biorefinery for production of carriers and chemicals.
Figure 223. Hydrolytic lignin powder.
Figure 224. Liquid biofuel production and consumption (in thousands of m3), 2000-2021.
Figure 225. Distribution of global liquid biofuel production in 2021.
Figure 226. Ethanol consumption 2010-2027 (million litres).
Figure 227. Global bio-jet fuel consumption 2010-2027 (M litres/year).
Figure 228. Global biodiesel consumption, 2010-2027 (M litres/year).
Figure 229. Global renewable diesel consumption, 2010-2027 (M litres/year).
Figure 230. Total syngas market by product in MM Nm³/h of Syngas, 2021.
Figure 231. Biogas and biomethane pathways.
Figure 232. Properties of petrol and biobutanol.
Figure 233. Biobutanol production route.
Figure 234. Process steps in the production of electrofuels.
Figure 235. Mapping storage technologies according to performance characteristics.
Figure 236. Production process for green hydrogen.
Figure 237. E-liquids production routes.766
Figure 238. Fischer-Tropsch liquid e-fuel products.
Figure 239. Resources required for liquid e-fuel production.
Figure 240. Schematic of Climeworks DAC system.
Figure 241. Levelized cost and fuel-switching CO2 prices of e-fuels.
Figure 242. Cost breakdown for e-fuels.
Figure 243. Classification and process technology according to carbon emission in ammonia production.
Figure 244. Green ammonia production and use.
Figure 245. Schematic of the Haber Bosch ammonia synthesis reaction.
Figure 246. Schematic of hydrogen production via steam methane reformation.
Figure 247. Estimated production cost of green ammonia.
Figure 248. Projected annual ammonia production, million tons.
Figure 249. ANDRITZ Lignin Recovery process.
Figure 250. FBPO process
Figure 251. Direct Air Capture Process.
Figure 252. CRI process.
Figure 253. Domsjö process.
Figure 254. FuelPositive system.
Figure 255. Infinitree swing method.
Figure 256. Enfinity cellulosic ethanol technology process.
Figure 257: Plantrose process.
Figure 258. The Velocys process.
Figure 259. Goldilocks process and applications.
Figure 260. Paints and coatings industry by market segmentation 2019-2020.
Figure 261. PHA family.
Figure 262: Schematic diagram of partial molecular structure of cellulose chain with numbering for carbon atoms and n= number of cellobiose repeating unit.
Figure 263: Scale of cellulose materials.
Figure 264. Nanocellulose preparation methods and resulting materials.
Figure 265: Relationship between different kinds of nanocelluloses.
Figure 266. Hefcel-coated wood (left) and untreated wood (right) after 30 seconds flame test.
Figure 267: CNC slurry.
Figure 268. High purity lignin.
Figure 269. BLOOM masterbatch from Algix.
Figure 270. Global market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2033 (billions USD).
Figure 271. Market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2033 (billions USD), conservative estimate.
Figure 272. Market revenues for biobased paints and coatings, 2018-2033 (billions USD), high
Figure 273. Dulux Better Living Air Clean Biobased.
Figure 274: NCCTM Process.
Figure 275: CNC produced at Tech Futures’ pilot plant; cloudy suspension (1 wt.%), gel-like (10 wt.%), flake-like crystals, and very fine powder. Product advantages include:
Figure 276. Cellugy materials.
Figure 277. EcoLine® 3690 (left) vs Solvent-Based Competitor Coating (right).
Figure 278. Rheocrysta spray.
Figure 279. DKS CNF products.
Figure 280. Domsjö process.
Figure 281. CNF gel.
Figure 282. Block nanocellulose material.
Figure 283. CNF products developed by Hokuetsu.
Figure 284. BioFlex process.
Figure 285. Marusumi Paper cellulose nanofiber products.
Figure 286: Fluorene cellulose ® powder.
Figure 287. XCNF.
Figure 288. Spider silk production.
Figure 289. CNF dispersion and powder from Starlite.
Figure 290. 2 wt.% CNF suspension.
Figure 291. BiNFi-s Dry Powder.
Figure 292. BiNFi-s Dry Powder and Propylene (PP) Complex Pellet.
Figure 293. Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material.
Figure 294. HefCel-coated wood (left) and untreated wood (right) after 30 seconds flame test.
Figure 295. Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film.
Figure 296. Bioalkyd products.

Companies Mentioned

A selection of companies mentioned in this report includes:

  • 1 Advanced Biochemical (Thailand) Co., Ltd (ABT)
  • 3M
  • 9Fiber, Inc.
  • ADBioplastics
  • Adriano di Marti/Desserto
  • Advanced Biochemical (Thailand) Co., Ltd.
  • Aekyung Chemical Co., Ltd.
  • Aemetis, Inc.
  • Aeropowder Limited
  • AGRANA Staerke GmbH
  • Ahlstrom-Munksjö Oyj
  • Akzo Nobel N.V.
  • Alberdingk Boley GmbH
  • Alfa Kimya S.A.
  • Algaeing
  • Algix LLC
  • allnex GmbH
  • Alpha Biofuels (Singapore) Pte Ltd
  • Altropol Kunststoff GmbH
  • AMSilk GmbH
  • Amyris, Inc.
  • An Phát Bioplastics
  • Ananas Anam Ltd.
  • Andritz AG
  • Anellotech, Inc.
  • Ankor Bioplastics Co., Ltd.
  • ANPOLY, Inc.
  • Anqing He Xing Chemical Co., Ltd.
  • Apeel Sciences
  • Applied Bioplastics
  • Applied Graphene Materials
  • Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA)
  • Aquafil S.p.A.
  • Aquapak Polymers Ltd
  • Archer Daniel Midland Company (ADM)
  • Archroma
  • Arctic Biomaterials Oy
  • Arekapak GmbH
  • Arkema S.A
  • Arkema S.A.
  • Arlanxeo
  • Arrow Greentech
  • Arzeda Corp.
  • Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corporation
  • ASB Biodiesel Limited
  • Atmonia
  • Attis Innovations, llc
  • AVA Biochem AG
  • Avani Eco
  • Avantium B.V.
  • Axcelon Biopolymers Corporation
  • Ayas Renewables Inc.
  • Azolla
  • Bambooder Biobased Fibers B.V.
  • Baril Coatings B.V.
  • BASF SE
  • Bast Fiber Technologies, Inc.
  • BBCA Biochemical & GALACTIC Lactic Acid Co., Ltd.
  • Bcomp ltd.
  • BDI-BioEnergy International GmbH
  • Benefuel Inc.
  • Betulium Oy
  • Beyond Leather Materials ApS
  • Bio Fab NZ
  • Bio2Materials Sp. z o.o.
  • Bio2Oil ApS
  • BIOD Energy
  • Bioextrax AB
  • BIO-FED
  • Biofiber Tech Sweden AB
  • Biofibre GmbH
  • Biofine Technology, LLC
  • Biofy
  • Biojet AS
  • Biokemik
  • Bioleather
  • BIOLO
  • BioLogiQ, Inc.
  • BIO-LUTIONS International AG
  • Biomass Resin Holdings Co., Ltd
  • Biome Bioplastics
  • Biophilica
  • Bioplastech Ltd
  • BioSolutions
  • BIOTEC GmbH & Co. KG
  • Biotecam
  • Biotrem
  • Bioweg
  • BlockTexx Pty Ltd.
  • Bloom Biorenewables SA
  • BluCon Biotech GmbH
  • Blue BioFuels, Inc.
  • Blue Ocean Closures
  • Bluepha Beijing Lanjing Microbiology Technology Co., Ltd.
  • Bolt Threads
  • Borealis AG
  • Borregaard Chemcell
  • Bosk Bioproducts Inc.
  • Bowil Biotech Sp. z o.o.
  • B-PREG
  • Braskem SA
  • Brightmark Energy
  • Brightplus Oy
  • BTG Bioliquids B.V.
  • Bucha Bio, Inc.
  • Burgo Group S.p.A.
  • BYK-Chemie GmbH
  • Byogy Renewables, Inc.
  • Caphenia GmbH
  • CARAPAC Company
  • Carbiolice
  • Carbios
  • Carbon Collect Limited
  • Carbon Crusher
  • Carbon Engineering Ltd.
  • Carbon Recycling International
  • Carbonwave
  • Carbyon BV
  • Cardia Bioplastics Ltd.
  • Cardolite
  • Cargill
  • Cargill Corporation
  • Cass Materials Pty Ltd
  • Catalyxx
  • Cathay Industrial Biotech, Ltd.
  • Celanese Corporation
  • Cellicon B.V.
  • Cellucomp Ltd.
  • Celluforce, Inc.
  • Cellugy
  • Cellutech AB (Stora Enso)
  • Celtic Renewables Ltd.
  • CF Industries Holdings, Inc.
  • CH-Bioforce Oy
  • Checkerspot, Inc.
  • Chemical Process Services Ltd. (Bitrez)
  • Chemol Company (Seydel)
  • Chempolis Oy
  • Chitose Bio Evolution Pte Ltd.
  • Chongqing Bofei Biochemical Products Co., Ltd.
  • Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd.
  • CIMV
  • Circa Group
  • Circla Nordic
  • Circular Systems
  • CJ Biomaterials, Inc.
  • Clariant AG
  • Climeworks
  • Coastgrass ApS
  • COFCO Cooperation Ltd.
  • Corbion N.V.
  • Cortec Corporation
  • Corumat, Inc.
  • Cosun Beet Company
  • Covestro AG
  • CreaFill Fibers Corporation
  • Crimson Renewable Energy LLC
  • Cristal Union Group
  • Croda International plc
  • Cruz Foam
  • CuanTec Ltd.
  • C-Zero Inc.
  • Daicel Corporation
  • Daicel Polymer Ltd.
  • DaikyoNishikawa Corporation
  • Daily Polymer
  • Daio Paper Corporation
  • Daishowa Paper Products Co. Ltd.
  • DAK Americas LLC
  • Danimer Scientific
  • Danimer Scientific LLC
  • DENSO Corporation
  • Diamond Green Diesel LLC
  • DIC Corporation
  • DIC Products, Inc.
  • DKS Co. Ltd.
  • Domsjö Fabriker AB
  • Domtar Paper Company LLC
  • Dongnam Realize
  • Dongying Hebang Chemical Corp.
  • Dow Chemical Company
  • Dow, Inc.
  • DuFor Resins B.V.
  • DuPont
  • DuPont Tate & Lyle Bio Products Co., LLC
  • DuPont Tate & Lyle, LLC
  • Eastman Chemical Company
  • Eastman Chemical Ltd. Corporation
  • Eco Safety Products
  • Ecoat S.A.S
  • Ecopel
  • Ecoshell
  • EcoSynthetix, Inc.
  • Ecovative Design LLC
  • Ecovia Renewables
  • EggPlant Srl
  • Ehime Paper Manufacturing Co. Ltd.
  • Elementis plc
  • Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc
  • Emerging Fuels Technology (EFT)
  • Emery Oleochemicals LLC
  • EMS-Grivory
  • enbro Bamboo Company
  • Enerkem
  • Enerkem, Inc.
  • Eneus Energy
  • Eni S.p.A.
  • Enkev
  • Ensyn Corporation
  • Enviral
  • Eranova
  • Esbottle Oy
  • Essential Polymers
  • Ethox Chemicals LLC
  • Euglena Co., Ltd.
  • Evolved By Nature
  • Evonik Industries AG
  • Evrnu
  • Fairbrics
  • Faircraft
  • Far Eastern New Century Corporation
  • Fiberight
  • Fiberlean Technologies
  • Fillerbank Limited
  • Fiquetex S.A.S.
  • FKuR Kunststoff GmbH
  • Flocus
  • Floreon
  • Foamplant BV
  • Forge Hydrocarbons Corporation
  • FP Innovations
  • Fraunhofer Center for Chemical-Biotechnological Processes CBP
  • Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC
  • Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF
  • Freyzein
  • Fruit Leather Rotterdam
  • FuelPositive Corp.
  • Fuji Pigment Co., Ltd.
  • Fulcrum BioEnergy, Inc.
  • Full Cycle Bioplastics LLC
  • Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd.
  • Futerro
  • Futuramat Sarl
  • Futurity Bio-Ventures Ltd.
  • G+E GETEC Holding GmbH
  • Galatea Biotech Srl
  • Gelatex Technologies OÜ
  • Gen Corporation
  • Gen3Bio
  • GenCell Energy
  • Genecis Bioindustries, Inc.
  • GeneusBiotech BV
  • Genomatica
  • GEON Performance Solutions
  • Gevo, Inc
  • GFBiochemicals
  • Global Bioenergies SA
  • Grabio Greentech Corporation
  • Grado Zero Innovation
  • Granbio Technologies
  • Green Earth Institute
  • Green Fuel
  • Green Lizard Technologies Ltd
  • Grupp MAIP
  • GS Alliance Co. Ltd
  • Guangzhou Bio-plus Materials Technology Co., Ltd.
  • Haldor Topsoe A/S
  • Handerek Technologies
  • Hattori Shoten K.K.
  • Hebei Casda Biomaterials Co., Ltd.
  • Hebei Jiheng Chemical Co., Ltd.
  • Hebei Xinhua Lactic Acid Co.
  • Heilongjiang Chenneng Bioengineering Ltd.
  • Henan Jindan Lactic Acid Technology Co., Ltd.
  • Henan Xinghan Biological Technology Co., Ltd.
  • Hengli Petrochemical
  • Hengshui Jinghua Chemical Co., Ltd.
  • Hero BX
  • Hexa Chemical Co. Ltd./Nature Gift
  • Hexion Inc
  • Hokuetsu Toyo Fibre Co., Ltd
  • Hokuetsu Toyo Fibre Co., Ltd.
  • Holmen Iggesund
  • Honext Material SL
  • Hubei Guangshui National Chemical Co., Ltd.
  • Humintech GmbH
  • Hunan Anhua Lactic Acid Co
  • Icytos
  • Imerys S.A.
  • India Glycol
  • India Glycols Ltd.
  • Indochine Bio Plastiques (ICBP) Sdn Bhd
  • Indorama Ventures Public Co. Ltd.
  • Infinited Fiber Company Oy
  • Infinitree LLC
  • Infinium
  • Ingevity
  • Inner Mettle
  • Innoltek
  • Inovyn
  • Inspidere B.V.
  • Iogen Corporation
  • Ioniqa
  • Itaconix
  • IUV Srl
  • JeNaCell GmbH
  • Jiangsu Anpon Electrochemical Co., Ltd
  • Jiangsu Jinhe Hi-Tech Co., Ltd.
  • Jiangsu Senda Biological Engineering Co., Ltd.
  • Jiangsu Torise Biomaterials Co., Ltd
  • Jiangsu Yangnong Chemical Group Co., Ltd.
  • Jiangsu Zhongzheng Biochemical Co., Ltd.
  • Jilin COFCO Biomaterial Corporation
  • JinHui ZhaoLang High Technology Co., Ltd.
  • JRS Rettenmaier & Sohne GmbH
  • Jungbunzlauer Suisse AG
  • Jupiter Ionics Pty Ltd
  • Kalion, Inc.
  • Kami Shoji Company
  • Kane Biotech, Inc.
  • Kaneka Corporation
  • Kanteleen Voima
  • Kao Corporation
  • Keel Labs
  • Kelheim Fibres GmbH
  • KH Neochem
  • Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co. Ltd.
  • Klabin S.A.
  • Kolon Industries, Inc.
  • Kraig Biocraft Laboratories
  • Kraton Corporation
  • KRI Inc
  • Kusano Sakko K.K.
  • Kyanite Microorganism
  • Labema® Laboratories
  • Lactips S.A.
  • LAM’ON
  • Lanxess AG
  • LanzaTech
  • LCY Biosciences
  • Le Qara
  • Leaf Resources Ltd
  • Lean Orb
  • Lectrolyst LLC
  • Lenzing AG
  • LEUNA-Harze GmbH
  • LG Chem
  • Licella
  • Lignin Industries
  • Lignolix, Inc.
  • LignoPure GmbH
  • Lignovations GmbH
  • Lingrove, Inc.
  • Liquid Wind
  • Living Ink
  • Living Ink Technologies
  • Lixea
  • Lixea Limited
  • Locus Fermentation Solutions
  • Loick Biowertstoff GmbH
  • Loliware LLC
  • LOTTE Chemical Corporation
  • LXP Group GmbH
  • Lygos, Inc
  • LyondellBasell Industries Holdings B.V.
  • Made of Air GmbH
  • MakeGrowLab
  • Malai Biomaterials Design Pvt. Ltd. (Malai)
  • Mango Materials, Inc.
  • Manta Biofuel, LLC
  • Marea
  • Marine Innovation Co., Ltd
  • Marine Nanofiber Co., Ltd.
  • Marusumi Paper Company Limited
  • Mash Energy ApS
  • Masuko Sangyo Co., Ltd.
  • MedPHA Bio-Tech Co., Ltd.
  • Meghmani Finechem Ltd.
  • Mehler Engineered Products GmbH
  • Melodea Ltd.
  • Mercurius Biorefining Inc
  • METabolic EXplorer S.A. (METEX)
  • Metgen Oy
  • Michelman
  • Mitr Phol
  • Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation
  • Mitsubishi Polyester Film GmbH
  • Mitsui Chemicals, inc.
  • Mobius
  • Modern Meadow, Inc.
  • Modern Synthesis
  • MOFWORX
  • Mogu S.r.l.
  • Mondi
  • mori
  • Mori Machinery Co., Ltd.
  • Mote, Inc.
  • Multibax Public Co., Ltd.
  • Mura Technology Limited
  • Musashino Chemical Laboratory, Ltd.
  • MYCL
  • MycoWorks
  • Mylium BV
  • Nabaco, Inc.
  • Nafigate Corporation a.s.
  • Nanollose Ltd
  • Nantong Cellulose Fibers Co., Ltd
  • Nantong Jiuding Biological Engineering Co., Ltd.
  • NatPol
  • Natural Fiber Welding, Inc.
  • Nature Coatings, Inc.
  • NatureWorks
  • NatureWorks LLC
  • NefFa
  • NeoZeo AB
  • Neste
  • Neste Oyj
  • New Zealand Natural Fibers (NZNF)
  • NewEnergyBlue LLC
  • Newlight Technologies LLC
  • NEXE Innovations Inc.
  • Nexus Fuels, LLC
  • Ningbo Huanyang Chemical Co., Ltd.
  • Ningbo Tianan Biologic Material
  • Nippon Paper Industries
  • Nordic ElectroFuel
  • Norsk e-Fuel AS
  • Norske Skog AS
  • Northern Technologies International
  • Notpla
  • Nova Kaeru
  • Nova Pangaea Technologies (UK) Ltd.
  • Novamont S.p.A.
  • Novomer
  • Novozymes A/S
  • NUREL S.A.
  • Nuvi Releaf
  • Nxtlevvel
  • Oakbio, Inc.
  • Oimo
  • Oji Paper Company
  • Oleago
  • Oleon N.V.
  • Omya
  • Opus 12, Inc.
  • Orange Fiber S.r.l.
  • Organic Disposables
  • OrganoClick AB
  • Origin Materials
  • Orineo
  • ORLEN Poludnie
  • Osaka Gas Group
  • Oy Hydrocell Ltd
  • Pangaia Ltd.
  • Paques Biomaterials
  • Perstorp AB
  • PHABuilder
  • PHB Industrial S.A.
  • Photanol B.V.
  • Pivot Materials LLC
  • Plafco Fibertech Oy
  • Plantic Technologies Ltd.
  • Plantics B.V.
  • Polaris Renewables LLC
  • Polybion
  • Polyferm
  • Pond Biomaterials
  • PPG
  • Praj Industries Ltd.
  • Prime Polymer Co., Ltd.
  • PRISMA Renewable Composites
  • Prometheus Fuels, Inc.
  • Proton Power, Inc.
  • Provenance Biofabrics, Inc.
  • PT Intera Lestari Polimer
  • PTT MCC Biochem Co., Ltd.
  • Pure Lignin Environmental Technology
  • Pure Lignin Environmental Technology Ltd.
  • Qairos Energies
  • Q-milk GmbH
  • Qnature UG
  • Qorium
  • Radical Plastics
  • Radici Group
  • RAW Paints
  • Rayonier Advanced Materials
  • Re:newcell
  • Red Avenue New Materials Group Co., Ltd.
  • Red Leaf Pulp Ltd.
  • Relement BV
  • RenCom AB
  • RenFuel
  • Rengo Co., Ltd.
  • Renmatix
  • Resolute Forest Products, Inc.
  • Resynergi, Inc.
  • Revoltech GmbH
  • RiceHouse srl
  • Ripro Corporation
  • RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB
  • Risho Kogyo Co. Ltd.
  • Rodenburg Biopolymers B.V.
  • Roquette S.A.
  • Royal DSM N.V
  • Royal DSM N.V.
  • RWDC Industries
  • Sainc Energy Limited
  • SaltyCo Textiles
  • Samyang Corporation
  • Saphium Biotechnology GMBH
  • Sappi
  • SAPPI Biotech
  • Saudi Basic Industries Corp. (SABIC)
  • SBI BioEnergy Inc.
  • ScobyTec GmbH
  • Seawear Ltd.
  • Sebacic Oman SAOC
  • Sebiplast s.r.l.
  • Seevix Material Sciences Ltd.
  • Seiko PMC Corporation
  • Sekab E-Technology AB
  • S-EnPol Co., Ltd.
  • Shandong Baisheng Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
  • Shandong Fuwin New Material Co., Ltd.
  • Shandong Landian Biological Technology Co., Ltd.
  • Shandong Minji Chemical Co., Ltd.
  • Shandong Siqiang Chemical Group Co., Ltd.
  • Shanghai Tong-Jie-Liang Biomaterials Co., Ltd.
  • Shanxi Leda Biochemical Co., Ltd.
  • Shanxi Zhengang Chemical Co., Ltd.
  • Sharp Chemical Ind. Co., Ltd.
  • Shenghong Group
  • Shenzhen Ecomann Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
  • Shenzhen Esun Industrial Co., Ltd.
  • SICOMIN Epoxy Systems
  • Silva Green Fuel
  • Simplifyber, Inc.
  • Sirmax Group
  • SK Chemicals Co., Ltd.
  • SkyNRG
  • Skytree BV
  • Slow Factory Labs
  • Smartfiber AG
  • Solvay SA
  • Soma Bioworks/White Lemur Co.
  • Spectrus Sustainable Solutions Pvt Ltd
  • Spero Renewables
  • Spiber, Inc.
  • Spidey Tek
  • Spinnova Oy
  • Spolchemie
  • Spora Biotech
  • St1 Oy
  • Starlite Co., Ltd.
  • Steeper Energy Aps
  • Stora Enso Oyj
  • Sufresca
  • Sugino Machine Limited
  • Sulapac Oy
  • Sulzer Chemtech AG
  • Sun Chemical Corporation
  • Sunar Misir
  • SunCoal Industries GmbH
  • Sundrop Fuels, Inc.
  • Sunfire GmbH
  • Sunho Biodiesel Corporation
  • SUPLA Bioplastics
  • Suzano SA
  • Sweetwater Energy
  • Synhelion
  • Synthopol Chemie
  • TAIF-NK
  • Take Cite Co., Ltd.
  • Tandem Repeat
  • Tanin sevnica kemicna industrija
  • TBM Co., Ltd.
  • Teal Bioworks, Inc.
  • TechnipFMC
  • TECNARO GmbH
  • Teijin Ltd
  • TerraVerdae BioWorks Inc
  • Teysha Technologies Limited
  • The Lubrizol Corporation
  • thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions AG
  • Tianan Biologic Material Co., Ltd.
  • Tianjin GreenBio Materials Co., Ltd
  • Tianxing Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
  • Tômtex
  • Tongliao Xinghe Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
  • Toray Industries, Inc.
  • TotalEnergies Corbion
  • Toyobo Co., Ltd.
  • Toyota Boshoku Corporation
  • Treemera GmbH
  • TripleW
  • TS Tech Co., Ltd.
  • UBQ Materials
  • Uluu
  • Unitika Ltd.
  • Universal Bio Pack Co., Ltd.
  • UPM Biochemicals
  • UPM Biocomposites
  • UPM Biofuels
  • UPM-Kymmene Oyj
  • Valmet Oyj
  • Vegatex Biotech
  • Vegea srl
  • Velocys
  • Vencorex® Chemicals
  • VEnvirotech Biotechnology SL
  • VERBIO Vereinigte BioEnergie AG
  • Versalis SpA
  • Vertimass LLC
  • Vertoro
  • Vertus Energy Ltd.
  • ViaeX Technologies
  • Vibers BV
  • Virent Inc.
  • Viridos
  • Visolis Inc.
  • VitroLabs Inc
  • von Holzhausen
  • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
  • Vynova
  • Wacker Chemie AG
  • Wanhua Chemical Group Co., Ltd.
  • WasteFuel
  • Werewool
  • West Fraser Timber Co Ltd.
  • WeylChem International GmbH
  • Woodly Ltd.
  • Worlée-Chemie GmbH
  • Worn Again Technologies
  • Wuhan Sanjiang Space Good Biotech Co., Ltd.
  • Xampla
  • Xillix GmbH
  • Xingzhenghe Chemical Co., Ltd.
  • Xinjiang Lanshan Tunhe
  • Yield10 Bioscience, Inc.
  • Yokogawa Electric Corporation
  • Yoshikawakuni Plastics Industries Co., Ltd.
  • Zelfo Technology
  • Zhangjiagang Glory Chemical Industry Co., Ltd
  • Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
  • Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co., Ltd.
  • Zhejiang Youcheng New Materials Co., Ltd
  • Zolpan SAS
  • Zvnder

Methodology

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