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Microbiology. 3rd Edition, International Adaptation

  • Book

  • 1024 Pages
  • February 2022
  • Region: Global
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
  • ID: 5824888
Microbiology is a comprehensive textbook that facilitates a thorough understanding of the scope, nature, and complexity of the science of microscopic organisms. It gives a balanced presentation of foundational concepts, real-world applications, and current research and experimentation. The text approaches the subject within the context of exploration and experimentation, integrating a wealth of classroom-tested pedagogical features. The material is organized around the three pillars of physiology, ecology, and genetics - helping students appreciate the interconnected and dynamic nature of microbiology and explore the relationship between different types of microbes, other organisms, and the environment. This international adaptation contains up-to-date coverage of topics including DNA replication and gene expression, viral pathogenesis, microbial biotechnology, adaptive immunity, the control of infectious diseases, and the microbiology of food and water. It also offers integrated coverage of SARS-CoV-2 and the impacts of COVID-19, relating it to the importance of an interdisciplinary response to a global pandemic. It also focuses on strengthening the organization of the content and updating the end of chapter problems

Table of Contents

PART I The Microbes 


1 The Microbial World 

1.1The Microbes 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research The Three Domains of Life 

Toolbox 1.1 Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification of rRNA Genes 

1.2Microbial Physiology, Genetics, and Cultivation 

Outlook 1.1 Creating Life in the Laboratory: The Miller-Urey Experiment 

1.3Microbial Ecology and Biotechnology 

1.4 Microbes Associated with Diseases 


2 Bacteria and Archaea  

2.1Morphology of Bacterial Cells 

Outlook 2.1 Making the Microbiology Laboratory Accessible 

2.2The Cytoplasm 

2.3The Cytoskeleton 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Magnetosomes: Uncovering the Structure of Bacterial Organelles 

2.4The Cell Envelope 

Toolbox 2.1 The Gram Stain 

Outlook 2.2 The Protective Shells of Endospores 

2.5The Cell Surface 

2.6 Evolution of Archaea 

2.7 Morphology of Archaeal Cells 

2.8Diversity of Bacteria and Archaea  

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research The Role of Archaea in Our Digestive System 

Outlook 2.3 Extremophiles and Biotechnology 


3 Eukaryotic Microorganisms  

3.1Structure of Eukaryotic Cells 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Lipid Rafts: Organized Clustering of Lipids within a Membrane 

Toolbox 3.1 Using Microscopy to Examine Cell Structure 

Outlook 3.1 Hijacking the Cytoskeleton 

3.2Diversity of Eukaryotic Microorganisms 

3.3Replication of Eukaryotic Microorganisms  

3.4The Origin of Eukaryotic Cells 

Outlook 3.2 Secondary endosymbiosis: The origins of an organelle with four membranes 

3.5Interactions Between Eukaryotic Microorganisms and Animals, Plants, and the Environment 



4 Virology  

4.1A Basic Overview of Viruses  

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research New Findings in the Packaging of DNA by the Model Bacteriophage T4 

4.2Origins of Viruses 

Outlook 4.1 Ribozymes: Evidence for an RNA-Based World 

4.3Cultivation, Purification, and Quantification of Viruses 

Toolbox 4.1 Cell Culture Techniques 

Outlook 4.2 Measurement of HIV Viral Load 

4.4Diversity of Viruses 

Toolbox 4.2 Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) 

4.5Virus-Like Agents 

4.6Present Prospective in Virology 



5 Microbial Metabolism 

5.1Acquisition of Carbon, Energy, and Electrons 

5.2Energy, Enzymes, and ATP 

Outlook 5.1 Who Needs Vitamins? 

5.3ATP Synthesis 

5.4Metabolism of Glucose Carbon Sources 

5.5Respiration and the Electron Transport System 

Outlook 5.2 Electricigenic Bacteria and Microbial Fuel Cells 

5.6Metabolism of Non-glucose Carbon Sources 

Toolbox 5.1 Metabolism and Rapid Bacterial Identification Systems 

5.7Phototrophy and Photosynthesis 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Genome Sequence of a Deep Sea Symbiont 

5.8Metabolism of Nitrogen and Sulfur 

5.9Biosynthesis of Cellular Components 


PART II Microbial Genetics 


6 Cultivating Microorganisms 

6.1Factors Affecting Microbial Growth 

Toolbox 6.1 Phenotype Microarrays for Examining Microbial Growth 

6.2Growing Microorganisms in the Laboratory 

Outlook 6.1 The Discovery of Helicobacter pylori 

Toolbox 6.2 FISHING for Uncultivated Microorganisms 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Bringing to Life the Previously Unculturable Using the Soil Substrate Membrane System (SSMS) 

6.3Measuring Microbial Growth 

Outlook 6.2 Mycobacterium leprae, An Extraordinarily Slow-growing Pathogen 

Outlook 6.3 The Human Intestine: A Continuous Culture 

6.4Preventing Microbial Growth 


7 DNA Replication and Gene Expression  

7.1The Role of DNA 

7.2Replication of DNA 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Telomeres with Promoter Activity 


Toolbox 7.1 Using a Gel Shift Assay to Identify DNA-binding Proteins 


7.5The Effects of Mutations 

Outlook 7.1 Using Mutations to Control Viral Infections 


8 Viral and their Replication  

8.1Recognition of Host Cells 

Outlook 8.1 Identifying Emerging Viral Pathogens 

Toolbox 8.1 The Western Blot 

8.2Viral Penetration and Uncoating 

8.3Viral Replication 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research The Discovery of Reverse Transcriptase 

Outlook 8.2 Phage Therapy: Biocontrol for Infections  

8.4Viral Assembly and Release 


9 Bacterial Genetic Analysis and Manipulation  

9.1Bacteria as Subjects of Genetic Research 

9.2Mutations, Mutants, and Strains 

Toolbox 9.1 Isolating Nutritional Mutants 

9.3Restriction Enzymes, Vectors, and Cloning 

9.4Recombination and DNA Transfer 

Outlook 9.1 Plasmids That Produce Pathogens 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research The Discovery of Transduction 


10 Microbial Genomics  

10.1Genome Sequencing 

Outlook 10.1 Rate of DNA Sequencing 

Toolbox 10.1 Genome databases 

10.2Genomic Analysis of Gene Expression 

10.3Comparative Genomics 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Genome Sequence of a Killer Bug 

Outlook 10.2 The Minimal Genome 

10.4Functional Genomics and Related Analyses 


11 Regulation of Gene Expression  

11.1Differential Gene Expression 

11.2The Operon 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Tuning Promoters for Use in Synthetic Biology 

11.3Global Gene Regulation 

Outlook 11.1 The Use of Lactose Analogs in Gene Expression Studies 

11.4Post-Initiation Control of Gene Expression 

Toolbox 11.1 Using RNA molecules to decrease gene expression 

11.5Quorum Sensing and Biofilm formation 

11.6Two-Component Regulatory Systems 



PART III Microbial Physiology and Ecology  


12 Microbial Ecosystems  

12.1Microbes in the Environment 

12.2Microbial Community Analysis 

Toolbox 12.1 Flow Cytometry 

Outlook 12.1 Naming the Uncultured and Uncharacterized 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Insights into the Phylogeny and Coding Potential of Microbial Dark Matter 

12.3Aquatic Ecosystems 

Outlook 12.2 Dead Zones 

12.4Terrestrial Ecosystems 

12.5Deep Subsurface and Geothermal Ecosystems 



13 Symbiotic Microbiome 

13.1Types of Microbe-Host Interactions 

13.2Plant Microbiome 

Outlook 13.1 The Possible Impossible Vegan Patty 

13.3Human Microbiome 

Toolbox 13.1 Germ-free and Gnotobiotic Animals 

Outlook 13.2 Food Probiotics - Do They Work? 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Fecal Bacteriotherapy: “Repoopulation” of the Gut 

13.4Herbivore’s Microbiome 

Outlook 13.3 Midichlorians - Not Just for Jedi 

Outlook 13.4 Death of Coral Reefs 


14 Biogeochemical Cycles  

14.1Nutrient Cycling 

Toolbox 14.1 Using Microarrays to Examine Microbial Communities: The GeoChip 

14.2Cycling Driven by Carbon Metabolism 

Outlook 14.1 CO2 as a Greenhouse Gas and Its Influence on Climate Change 

14.3Cycling Driven by Nitrogen Metabolism 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research The First Isolation and Cultivation of a Marine Archaeon 

14.4Other Cycles and their Connections 

Outlook 14.2 Life in a World without Microbes 

Outlook 14.3 The Microbiology of Environmentally Toxic Acid Mine Drainage 

Toolbox 14.2 Biogeochemistry in a Bottle: The Winogradsky Column 


15 Microbial Biotechnology  

15.1Microorganisms for Biotechnology 

Outlook 15.1 Bioprospecting: Who Owns the Microbes? 

15.2Genetic Engineering 

Toolbox 15.1 Site-Directed Mutagenesis 

Toolbox 15.2 Fusion Protein Purification 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Making a Synthetic Genome 

Outlook 15.2 The International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) Competition, Standard Biological Parts, and Synthetic Biology 

15.3Red Biotechnology 

15.4White Biotechnology 

Outlook 15.3 Biofuels: Biodiesel and Algae 

15.5Green Biotechnology 

Toolbox 15.3 Plant Transformation Using Bacteria 



PART IV Microbes and Disease 


16 Introduction to Infectious Diseases 

16.1Microbes and their pathogenesis 

Toolbox 16.1 Measuring the Virulence of Pathogens 

16.2Microbial Virulence Strategies 

Outlook 16.1 Genome Editing: A powerful and Controversial New Technique  

16.3The Transmission of Infectious Diseases 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Epidemiology of an Infectious Disease 

16.4Proving Cause and Effect in Microbial Infections 

Outlook 16.2 Animal models to Study Infectious diseases (Ex: Mice, Guinea Pigs, C. elegans etc.,) 

16.5The Evolution of Pathogens 


17 Clinical Microbiology and Immunology  


17.2Barriers to Infection 

Outlook 17.1 Messy Mucus 

17.3The Inflammatory Response 

17.4The Molecules of the Innate System 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Mammalian Cells Can Recognize Bacterial DNA 

Toolbox 17.1 The Complement Fixation Test 

17.5The Cells of Innate Immunity 

17.6Invertebrate Defenses 

Toolbox 17.2 The Limulus Amoebocyte Assay for LPS 


18 Adaptive Immunity 

18.1Features of Adaptive Immunity 

18.2T Cells 

18.3Antigen Processing 

18.4Antigen-Presenting Cells 

18.5Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses 

Outlook 18.1 Too Much of a Good Thing? 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Attempting to Engineer a Virus to Improve Immunocontraception 

18.6B Cells and the Production of Antibody 

Outlook 18.2 Vaccines Against T-independent Antigens 

Toolbox 18.1 Monoclonal Antibody (mAb) Production 

Toolbox 18.2 Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) 

Outlook 18.3 Turning Antibody Upside Down 


19 Bacterial Pathogenesis  

19.1Bacterial Virulence Factors 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Escherichia Coli Injects Its Own Receptor 

Outlook 19.1 Iron, Vampires, Fashion, and the White Plague 

19.2Bacterial Virulence Factors - Toxins 

Toolbox 19.1 Serotyping 

Outlook 19.2 The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly Side of Botulinum Toxin 

Outlook 19.3 Superabsorbent Tampons and Superantigens 

19.3Survival in the Host: Strategies and Consequences 

Toolbox 19.2 The Tuberculin Test for Tuberculosis 

19.4Evolution of Bacterial Pathogens 


20 Viral Pathogenesis  

20.1Recurring Themes in Viral Pathogenesis 

Outlook 20.1 Vertical Transmission of HIV 

20.2Interactions with the Host: Strategies and Consequences 

Outlook 20.2 Viral Induction of Apoptosis 

20.3Viral Infections and Cancer 

Toolbox 20.1 Immunoprecipitation 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Viruses that Cause Cancer by Affecting Cellular Proliferation 

Outlook 20.3 SV40 and Human Cancers 

20.4Evolution of Viral Pathogens 

Outlook 20.4 SARS-CoV-2 variants and their Impact 


21 Eukaryotic Pathogenesis 

21.1Mechanisms of Eukaryotic Pathogenesis 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research An Experimental System for the Genomic Study of Dutch Elm Disease 

Outlook 21.1 Pneumocystis Jirovecii or Carinii : The Evolving Field of Taxonomy 

Outlook 21.2 Magic Mushrooms 

21.2Pathogen Study: Plasmodium Falciparum 

Toolbox 21.1 Testing for Malaria 

21.3Macroscopic Eukaryotic Pathogens 

21.4Evolution of Eukaryotic Pathogens 


22 Control of Infectious Diseases  

22.1Historical Aspects of Infectious Disease Treatment and Control 

22.2Antimicrobial Drugs 

22.3Antimicrobial Drug Resistance 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Tracking Acquisition of Antibiotic Resistance In Real Time 

Toolbox 22.1 Drug Susceptibility Testing and MIC 

Outlook 22.1 The Pursuit of New Antibiotics: Why Bother? 

Outlook 22.2 Health Care-Associated Infections: A Recipe for Resistance 

22.4Predicting and Controlling Epidemics 

22.5Immunization and Vaccines 

Outlook 22.3 Variolation: Deliberate Infection with Smallpox Virus 

Outlook 22.4 The War Against Vaccines 



23 The Microbiology of Food and Water 

23.1Food Spoilage 

23.2Food Preservation 

23.3Food Fermentation 

23.4Foodborne and Waterborne Illness 

23.5Microbiological Aspects of Water Quality 

Outlook 23.1 Implications of Sludge Bulking 

Toolbox 23.1 Measuring Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 

Mini-Paper: A Focus on the Research Enhanced Biological Removal of Phosphorus 

Toolbox 23.2 Most Probable Number (MPN) Method  


APPENDIX A Scientific Articles 

APPENDIX B Microscopy 

APPENDIX C Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Microbes 

APPENDIX D Origin of Blood Cells 




Dave Wessner Davidson College. Christine Dupont University of Waterloo. Trevor Charles University of Waterloo. Josh Neufeld