Health and Environmental Safety of Nanomaterials. Woodhead Publishing Series in Composites Science and Engineering

  • ID: 2784358
  • Book
  • 344 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Health and Environmental Safety of Nanomaterials addresses concerns about the impact of nanomaterials on the environment and human health, and examines the safety of specific nanomaterials. Understanding the unique chemical and physical properties of nanostructures has led to many developments in the applications of nanocomposite materials. While these materials have applications in a huge range of areas, their potential for toxicity must be thoroughly understood.

Part one introduces the properties of nanomaterials, nanofillers, and nanocomposites, and questions whether they are more toxic than their bulk counterparts. Part two looks at the release and exposure of nanomaterials. The text covers sampling techniques and data analysis methods used to assess nanoparticle exposure, as well as protocols for testing the safety of polymer nanocomposites. It explains characterization techniques of airborne nanoparticles and life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials. Part three focuses on the safety of certain nanomaterials, including nanolayered silicates, carbon nanotubes, and metal oxides. In particular, it explores the potential ecotoxicological hazards associated with the different structures of carbon nanotubes and the safe recycling of inorganic and carbon nanoparticles. The final two chapters address the risks of nanomaterials in fire conditions: their thermal degradation, flammability, and toxicity in different fire scenarios.

This is a scientific guide with technical background for professionals using nanomaterials in industry, scientists, academicians, research scholars, and polymer engineers. It also offers a deep understanding of the subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students.

  • Introduces the properties of nanomaterials, nanofillers, and nanocomposites, and questions whether they are more toxic than their bulk counterparts
  • Covers sampling techniques and data analysis methods used to assess nanoparticle exposure, as well as protocols for testing the safety of polymer nanocomposites
  • Explores the potential ecotoxicological hazards associated with the different structures of carbon nanotubes and the safe recycling of inorganic and carbon nanoparticles

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Composites Science and Engineering

Preface

Part I: General introduction

1. Nanomaterials, nanofillers, and nanocomposites: types and properties

Abstract:

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Key terms and definitions

1.3 Common physical and chemical properties

1.4 Types of nanofiller

1.5 Nanocomposites: selected examples

1.6 Conclusion

1.7 Acknowledgement

1.8 References

2. Mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Size- and non-size-related toxicity mechanisms of nanomaterials

2.3 Mechanisms of nanomaterial-induced cellular damage mediated by oxidative stress

2.4 Mechanisms of nanomaterial-induced cellular damage independent of oxidative stress

2.5 Nanomaterial shape and toxicity: the fibre paradigm

2.6 The use of lipidomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics to understand nanomaterial toxicity

2.7 Conclusion and future trends

2.8 References

Part II: Assessment of nanomaterial release and exposure

3. Nanoparticle exposure assessment: methods, sampling techniques, and data analysis

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Physicochemical properties of nanomaterials relevant to exposure assessment

3.3 International standards and guidance relating to nanoparticle exposure assessment

3.4 Instrumentation for exposure assessment

3.5 Sample collection strategies for exposure assessment

3.6 Initial evaluation: identification of potential emission sources

3.7 Main evaluation: key steps

3.8 Data interpretation

3.9 Conclusion and future trends

3.10 Acknowledgement

3.11 References

4. Sampling protocols for testing the safety of polymer nanocomposites

Abstract:

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Approaches for release simulation: case studies of drilling

4.3 Simulating the release of particulate materials

4.4 Collection of samples

4.5 Characterization of samples

4.6 Sample storage and labelling

4.7 Preventing the contamination of stored samples

4.8 Sample pre-treatment before testing: use of dispersing agents, sonication, stirring and mixing

4.9 Protocol validation and standardization

4.10 Conclusion and future trends

4.11 Sources of further information and advice

4.12 References

5. Measurement and sampling techniques for characterization of airborne nanoparticles released from nano-enhanced products

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Identification of release scenarios of nano-sized particles from nanocomposites

5.3 Measurement of airborne nano-sized particles

5.4 Collection of airborne particles

5.5 Deficiencies of devices for measuring airborne nano-sized particles

5.6 Case study: the effect of nanoclay on dust generation during drilling of PA6 nanocomposites

5.7 Conclusion

5.8 Acknowledgement

5.9 References

6. Life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Life cycle assessment methodology

6.3 Life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials: case studies

6.4 New developments in life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials

6.5 Conclusion

6.6 References

Part III: Safety of particular types of nanomaterial

7. Nanolayered silicates/clay minerals: uses and effects on health

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Characteristics of clay minerals

7.3 Effect of clay minerals on the environment

7.4 Toxicity of nanoclays in humans

7.5 Life cycle assessment of nanoclay-reinforced materials

7.6 Conclusion and future trends

7.7 References

8. Carbon nanotubes: properties, applications, and toxicity

Abstract:

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Physico-chemical properties of carbon nanotubes and their applications

8.3 Carbon nanotubes in nanomedicine

8.4 Carbon nanotube toxicity

8.5 Conclusion and future trends

8.6 Acknowledgements

8.7 References

9. Ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanotubes: test methods and current research

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Quantification of carbon nanotubes in environmentally relevant media

9.3 Methodological issues

9.4 Current research on ecotoxicological risks of nanoparticles

9.5 Future trends

9.6 Conclusion

9.7 Disclaimer

9.8 References

10. Metal oxide nanomaterials: health and environmental effects

Abstract:

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Nano-zinc oxide

10.3 Nano-titanium dioxide

10.4 Other metal oxides

10.5 Conclusion and future trends: metal oxide nanomaterial regulation and risk assessment

10.6 Sources of further information and advice

Websites for general information

Government documents

Books

10.7 References

11. Safe recycling of materials containing persistent inorganic and carbon nanoparticles

Abstract:

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Recycling of engineered nanomaterials applied in suspensions

11.3 Recycling of nanocomposites

11.4 The range of recycling options

11.5 Nanomaterials present in wastes

11.6 Release of nanoparticles linked to recycling facilities

11.7 Conclusion

11.8 References

12. Nanostructured flame retardants: performance, toxicity, and environmental impact

Abstract:

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Fabrication of polymer nanocomposites

12.3 Conventional and nanostructured flame retardants

12.4 Flame retardant behaviour of polymer nanocomposites

12.5 Synergies from combining nanostructured flame retardants

12.6 Health and environmental risks of conventional and nanostructured flame retardants

12.7 Conclusion and future trends

12.8 References

13. Thermal degradation, flammability, and potential toxicity of polymer nanocomposites

Abstract:

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Thermal degradation processes of polymers and nanocomposites

13.3 Thermal stability of nanoparticles

13.4 Instrumentation and techniques to investigate degradation products of nanocomposites

13.5 Fire toxicity of degradation products of nanocomposites and its assessment

13.6 Intrinsic toxicity of nanoparticles

13.7 Ultrafine particle production during combustion of nanocomposites

13.8 Conclusion and future trends

13.9 References

Index

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Njuguna, JamesDr James Njuguna is a Reader in Composite Materials and Structures at Robert Gordon University, UK.
Pielichowski, Krzysztof
Professor Krzysztof Pielichowski, head of Department of Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Cracow University of Technology, is an expert in polymer (nano)technology and chemistry, particularly in the areas of polymer nanocomposites with engineering polymers and hybrid organic-inorganic materials containing POSS. Prof. Pielichowski is currently performing a research programme in the area of preparation of engineering polymer nanocomposites with improved thermal and mechanical properties for construction applications.
Zhu, HuijunDr Huijun Zhu is a Senior Toxicologist at Cranfield University, UK.
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