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The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. Edition No. 2

  • ID: 3049042
  • Book
  • 1456 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Volcanoes are unquestionably one of the most spectacular and awe-inspiring features of the physical world. Our paradoxical fascination with them stems from their majestic beauty and powerful, sometimes deadly, destructiveness. Notwithstanding the tremendous advances in volcanology since ancient times, some of the mystery surrounding volcanic eruptions remains today. The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes summarizes our present knowledge of volcanoes; it provides a comprehensive source of information on the causes of volcanic eruptions and both the destructive and beneficial effects. The early chapters focus on the science of volcanism (melting of source rocks, ascent of magma, eruption processes, extraterrestrial volcanism, etc.).  Later chapters discuss human interface with volcanoes, including the history of volcanology, geothermal energy resources, interaction with the oceans and atmosphere, health aspects of volcanism, mitigation of volcanic disasters, post-eruption ecology, and the impact of eruptions on organismal biodiversity.
  • Provides the only comprehensive reference work to cover all aspects of volcanology
  • Written by nearly 100 world experts in volcanology
  • Explores an integrated transition from the physical process of eruptions through hazards and risk, to the social face of volcanism, with an emphasis on how volcanoes have influenced and shaped society
  • Presents hundreds of color photographs, maps, charts and illustrations making this an aesthetically appealing reference
  • Glossary of 3,000 key terms with definitions of all key vocabulary items in the field is included
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Part I. Origin and Transport of Magma 1. Melting the Earth's Upper Mantle Timothy L. Grove and Christy B. Till 2. Migration of Melt Martha J. Daines and Matej Pec 3. Plate Tectonics and Volcanism Peter C. LaFemina 4. The Composition and Origin of Magmas Nick Rogers 5. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Silicate Melts and Magma Charles E. Lesher and Frank J. Spera 6. Chemical Thermodynamics and the Study of Magmas Mark S. Ghiorso and Guilherme A.R. Gualda 7. Volatiles in Magmas Paul J. Wallace, Terry Plank, Marie Edmonds and Erik H. Hauri 8. Magma Chambers Bruce D. Marsh 9. Rates of Magma Ascent and Storage Brandon Browne and Lindsay Szramek 10. Magma Transport in Dikes Helge Gonnermann and Benoit Taisne 11. Magma Ascent and Degassing at Shallow Levels Alain Burgisser and Wim Degruyter

Part II. Eruptions 12. Earth's Volcanoes and Their Eruptions: An Overview Lee Siebert, Elizabeth Cottrell, Edward Venzke and Benjamin Andrews 13. Sizes of Volcanic Eruptions David M. Pyle 14. Global Rates of Volcanism and Volcanic Episodes Natalia Irma Deligne and Haraldur Sigurdsson 15. Primary Volcanic Landforms Shan de Silva and Jan M. Lindsay 16. Calderas Michael Branney and Valerio Acocella

Part III. Effusive Volcanism 17. Lava Flows and Rheology Andrew J.L. Harris and Scott K. Rowland 18. Lava Dome Eruptions Eliza S. Calder, Yan Lavallée, Jackie E. Kendrick and Marc Bernstein 19. Submarine Lavas and Hyaloclastite James D.L. White, Jocelyn McPhie, and S. Adam Soule 20. Glaciovolcanism Benjamin R. Edwards, Magnu´s T. Gudmundsson and James K. Russell 21. Mid-Ocean Ridge Volcanism S. Adam Soule 22. Seamounts and Island Building Hubert Staudigel and Anthony A.P. Koppers 23. Basaltic Volcanic Fields Greg A. Valentine and Charles B. Connor 24. Large Igneous Provinces and Flood Basalt Volcanism Stephen Self, Millard F. Coffin, Michael R. Rampino and John A. Wolff

Part IV Explosive Volcanism 25. Magmatic Fragmentation Katharine V. Cashman and Bettina Scheu 26. Magma-Water Interaction and Phreatomagmatic Fragmentation Bernd Zimanowski, Ralf Büttner, Pierfrancesco Dellino, James D.L. White and Kenneth H. Wohletz 27. Hawaiian and Strombolian Eruptions Jacopo Taddeucci, Marie Edmonds, Bruce Houghton, Michael R. James and Sylvie Vergniolle 28. Vulcanian Eruptions Amanda Bachtell Clarke, Tomaso Esposti Ongaro and Alexander Belousov 29. Plinian and Subplinian Eruptions Raffaello Cioni, Marco Pistolesi and Mauro Rosi 30. Phreatomagmatic and Related Eruption Styles Bruce Houghton, James D.L. White and Alexa R. Van Eaton 31. Submarine Explosive Eruptions James D.L. White, C. Ian Schipper and Kazuhiko Kano 32. Volcanic Plumes Steven Carey and Marcus Bursik 33. Tephra Dispersal and Sedimentation Costanza Bonadonna, Antonio Costa, Arnau Folch and Takehiro Koyaguchi 34. Pyroclastic Fall Deposits Bruce F. Houghton and Rebecca J. Carey 35. Pyroclastic Density Currents: Processes and Models Josef Dufek, Tomaso Esposti Ongaro and Olivier Roche 36. Deposits of Pyroclastic Density Currents Richard J. Brown and Graham D.M. Andrews 37. Lahars and Their Deposits James W. Vallance and Richard M. Iverson 38. Landslides, Debris Avalanches and Volcanic Gravitational Deformation Benjamin van Wyk de Vries and Tim Davies

Part V Extraterrestrial Volcanism 39. Volcanism on the Moon Paul D. Spudis 40. Volcanism on Mercury James W. Head, III and Lionel Wilson 41. Volcanism on Mars James R. Zimbelman, William Brent Garry, Jacob Elvin Bleacher and David A. Crown 42. Volcanism on Venus Mikhail A. Ivanov, Larry S. Crumpler, Jayne C. Aubele and James W. Head, III 43. Volcanism on Io Rosaly M.C. Lopes and David A. Williams 44. Cryovolcanism in the Outer Solar System Paul Geissler

Part VI Volcanic Interactions 45. Volcanic, Magmatic and Hydrothermal Gases Tobias P. Fischer and Giovanni Chiodini 46. Intrusion-Related Geothermal Systems James Stimac, Fraser Goff and Cathy J. Goff 47. Seafloor Hydrothermal Venting at Volcanic Arcs and Backarcs Cornel E.J. de Ronde and Valerie K. Stucker 48. Volcano-Related Lakes Pierre Delmelle, Richard W. Henley and Alain Bernard 49. Volcanic Successions Associated with Ore Deposits: Facies Characteristics and Ore-Host Relationships Jocelyn McPhie and Ray Cas 50. Volcanic Influences on the Carbon, Sulfur, and Halogen Biogeochemical Cycles Pierre Delmelle, Elena Maters and Clive Oppenheimer

Part VII. Volcanic Hazards 51. Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment Chuck Connor, Mark Bebbington and Warner Marzocchi 52. Volcanic Ash Hazards to Aviation Fred Prata and Bill Rose 53. Climatic Impacts of Volcanic Eruptions Alan Robock 54. Hazards from Pyroclastic Density Currents Paul D. Cole, Augusto Neri and Peter J. Baxter 55. Lava Flow Hazards and Modeling Christopher R.J. Kilburn 56. Hazards from Lahars and Jökulhlaups Magnús T. Gudmundsson 57. Hazards of Volcanic Gases Glyn Williams-Jones and Hazel Rymer 58. Volcanic Tsunamis Simon J. Day 59. Volcanic Seismicity Stephen R. McNutt and Diana C. Roman 60. Impacts of Eruptions on Human Health Peter J. Baxter and Claire J. Horwell 61. Large Igneous Provinces and Biotic Extinctions Michael R. Rampino and Stephen Self 62. Volcanic Lightning Stephen R. McNutt and Ronald J. Thomas

Part VIII. Eruption Response and Mitigation 63. Seismic and Infrasonic Monitoring Stephen R. McNutt, Glenn Thompson, Jeffrey Johnson, Silvio De Angelis and David Fee 64. Ground Deformation, Gravity, and Magnetics Jeffrey T. Freymueller, John B. Murray, Hazel Rymer and Corinne A. Locke 65. Gas, Plume, and Thermal Monitoring Simon A. Carn 66. Synthesis of Volcano Monitoring John Pallister and Stephen R. McNutt 67. Volcano Warning Systems Chris E. Gregg, Bruce Houghton and John W. Ewert 68. Volcanic Crisis Management Gill Jolly and Servando de la Cruz 69. Social Processes and Volcanic Risk Reduction Jenni Barclay, Katharine Haynes, Bruce Houghton and David Johnston 70. Volcanic Risk Assessment Willy Aspinall and Russell Blong

Part IX. Economic Benefits and Cultural Aspects of Volcanism 71. Utilization of Geothermal Resources Stefán Arnórsson, Sverrir Thórhallsson and Andri Stefánsson 72. Volcanic Soils Pierre Delmelle, Sophie Opfergelt, Jean-Thomas Cornelis and Chien-Lu Ping 73. Volcano Ecology: Disturbance Characteristics and Assembly of Biological Communities Charles M. Crisafulli, Frederick J. Swanson, Jonathan J. Halvorson and Bruce D. Clarkson 74. Volcanic Materials in Commerce and Industry 1285 Jonathan Dehn and Stephen R. McNutt 75. Volcanoes and Tourism Patricia Erfurt-Cooper, Haraldur Sigurdsson and Rosaly M.C. Lopes 76. Volcanoes, Ancient People, and Their Societies Payson Sheets 77. Volcanoes in Art Haraldur Sigurdsson 78. Volcanoes in Literature and Film Haraldur Sigurdsson and Rosaly M.C. Lopes

Appendix 1: Common Units and Conversion Factors Appendix 2: Catalog of Earth's Documented Holocene Eruptions

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Sigurdsson, Haraldur
Haraldur Sigurdsson is emeritus professor at the Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island in the United States of America. He has worked on volcanic processes and the geochemistry of volcanic rocks for over fifty years. His studies have in part been focused on the impact of volcanic activity on human populations, especially his work on Vesuvius in Italy, Tambora in Indonesia, El Chichon in Mexico and studies of deadly gas bursts from Cameroon crater lakes. He has also studied the global environmental effects of meteorite impacts, such as the one that marks the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. His books include Melting the Earth, accounting for the evolution of ideas about formation of magmas and the origin of volcanic eruptions. Haraldur is currently director of the Volcano Museum in Stykkisholmur, Iceland.
Houghton, Bruce
Bruce Houghton is the Gordon MacDonald Professor in Volcanology at University of Hawaii at Manoa and Hawaiian State Volcanologist and a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand. He is also Science Director at the National Disaster Preparedness Training Center at University of Hawaii. Previously he had a career of twenty five years as a volcanologist in New Zealand, culminating in leading the scientific response to the 1995-96 eruption of Ruapehu volcano. Bruce has published over 220 research papers in international journals and has worked in Alaska, Chile, El Salvador, Greece, Hawaii, Iceland, Italy, Germany, Nicaragua, Thailand and New Zealand.
McNutt, Steve
Steve McNutt is a Professor in the School of Geosciences at the University of South Florida (USF). He has worked on volcanic processes using seismology, infrasound, and lightning instruments for over 35 years. He worked half time for the Alaska Volcano Observatory from 1991-2012 and was closely involved in monitoring efforts for eruptions at Spurr, Pavlof, Shishaldin, Augustine, Okmok, Kasatochi, and Redoubt volcanoes. He coordinates seismology research at USF, and presently supervises 3 graduate students and a Post-Doc. His research interests include: 1) studies of source and propagation effects for volcanic tremor, low-frequency events, and explosion earthquakes; 2) volcanic hazards assessments in Alaska, California, and Central America; 3) the mechanical behavior of volcanoes, including periodicity of eruptions, and the effects of earth tides, sea level variations, and tectonic stresses on triggering eruptive activity; 4) volcano infrasound; and 5) volcanic lightning. From July 1999 to July 2007 he served as Secretary-General for the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior.
Rymer, Hazel
Hazel Rymer is presently the Dean and Director of Studies in the Faculty of Science and Profesor of Environmental Volcanology.

Hazel has developed and championed the use of microgravity as a tool for monitoring active volcanoes. She has used this method to identify sub-surface processes at calderas in a state of unrest and at persistently active volcanoes and this has given geoscientists considerable insight into the range of mechanisms responsible for initiating and sustaining volcanic activity. The technique Hazel pioneered is now the standard method for gravity monitoring on volcanoes; it remains the only way to quantify the sub-surface mass changes that occur before, during and after eruptions.
Stix, John
John Stix has studied active volcanoes for 26 years, specializing in volcanic gases, eruption mechanisms, and the impact of volcanic activity. He teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in volcanology, natural hazards, and environmental geology. He also is involved in field courses, where he exposes students to hands-on observations of natural processes such as volcanic eruptions and floods. He has been involved in many training courses and workshops in Canada, the US, and Latin America to teach volcanology. He has collaborated extensively with colleagues in Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Ecuador in volcano studies and volcanic hazards. From 2003 to 2010 he was the Editor-in-Chief of the Bulletin of Volcanology, the leading international journal related to the study of volcanoes and volcanism. He is currently part of an international team to drill into an active silicic magma body beneath Krafla volcano in Iceland.

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