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Melanin, the Master Molecule

  • ID: 4582133
  • Book
  • Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
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Melanin is a biological molecule associated with pigmentation in humans and animals. However, melanin has been observed to have other functions such as neuroprotection and energy production. In Melanin, the Master Molecule, researchers summarize several decades worth of knowledge on melanin and its physicochemical properties. Nine chapters explain the intrinsic biochemistry of melanin, comparisons with conventional energy producing and respiratory biomolecules, the property of melanin to transform light energy into chemical energy through the dissociation of the water molecule, and the theories of melanin based energy production in the nervous system, the cell nucleus, muscles and the eye, and the role the role of melanin in the context of ageing.

The authors also delve into the possibility of melanin being the key molecule needed to spark life since its water dissociating property through the absorption of light energy emulates the role of chlorophyll, but unlike the latter, it is not limited to the plant cell environment. Hence, melanin is referred to as the master molecule which can provide a missing link to the biochemical processes behind the origin of life.

Melanin, the Master Molecule is an exciting reference for biochemists and laymen interested in the science of melanin and a new perspective on the origin of life as we know it.

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Chapter 1 Intrinsic Chemistry Of Melanin: Potential Approaches For Translational Medicine 

  • Introduction
  • Thermodynamics
  • Laws Of Thermodynamics
  • The Evolutionary Cell Biology In Terms Of Energy Conservation
  • The Cell, The Forces Of Gravity And Other Physical Forces
  • The Cell, An Apparently Chaotic System
  • The Cell From The Point Of View Of The Entropy
  • Melanin, The Fundamental Molecule Of Life And Evolution
  • Photo-Protective Role Of Melanin
  • Melanin And Other Pigments In Biology
  • Melanin Functions Described In The Literature
  • Melanin As An Energy Source
  • The Chemistry Of Melanin
  • The Physical Properties Of Melanin
  • Optical Properties
  • Indirect Evidence Of The Unsuspected Property Of Melanin
  • Kleiber Law
  • Why Big Animals Use Energy More Efficiently Than Little Ones?
  • Melanin Functions In The Eye
  • How The Results Have Been Achieved
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis In Plants
  • Photosynthesis In Humans
  • Atp Is Not The Perfect Currency For Energy Cell
  • Energy Cost Of Protein Synthesis
  • Human Photosynthesis And Its Potential Implementation In Pppm
  • Some Examples Of Potential Applications Of The Human Photosynthesis Enhancement
  • Age-Related Macular Degeneration (Amd): Alzheimer´S Disease In The Eye ?
  • Neurotransmitters Role
  • Conclusion
  • Challenges Of Current Healthcare Systems
  • Outlook
  • Human And Animal Rights
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Chapter 2 The Cell Bioenergetics Pathways Beyond Glucose And Mitochondria And The Intrinsic Chemistry Of Melanin 

  • Arturo Solís Herrera, María Del Carmen Arias Esparza, Ruth I Solís Arias, Paola E
  • Solís Arias And Martha P Solís Arias
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Glycome
  • The Central Paradigm And Melanin
  • Clinical Contradictory Data
  • Melanin As Unsuspected Source Of Chemical Energy
  • Energy Definition
  • Glucose: The Universal Building Block
  • The Regularity In Living Things
  • Glucose And Energy
  • Kidney Cortex And Chemical Energy
  • Adenosine, The Backbone Of Atp
  • Conclusion
  • Human And Animal Rights
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgement
  • References

Chapter 3 Water Of The Cephalous Spinal Fluid- The Main Source Of Energy Of The Central Nervous System 

  • Arturo Solís-Herrera, Graciela Landín-Miranda, Ruth I Solís-Arias, Paola E Solísarias,
  • Martha P Solís-Arias And
  • María Del Carmen Arias Esparza
  • Background
  • Glucose: A Source Of Energy?
  • Mitochondria
  • Cephalous Spinal Fluid (Csf) And The Physiology Of The Choroid Plexuses (Cp)
  • Human Photosynthesis Or The Unexpected Capacity Of Melanin To Split The Water
  • Molecule
  • The Energy Supply To The Nucleus Of Eukaryotic Cell Without Mitochondria Or Atp
  • Melanin And The Central Nervous System
  • Conclusion
  • Human And Animal Rights
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Chapter 4 The Unsuspected Intrinsic Property Of Respiratory

  • Pigments To Dissociate, Irreversible, The Water Molecule
  • Arturo Solís Herrera
  • Introduction
  • Oxygen Transportation
  • The Exchange Membranes
  • Hemoglobin
  • Hemocyanin
  • Chlorocruorins
  • Hemerythrin
  • Oxygen And Respiratory Pigments
  • Venous Oxygen Tension
  • Oxygen Tension And Exercise
  • Hemocyanin And The Transport Of Oxygen In Marine Animals
  • Conclusion
  • Human And Animal Rights
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgement
  • References

Chapter 5 The Source Of Energy Of The Nucleus In Eukaryotic Cell Is Molecular Hydrogen And High Energy Electrons 

  • Arturo Solís Herrera, Arias Esparza, María Del Carmen, Solís Arias Ruth I, Solís Arias
  • Paola E And Solís Arias Martha P
  • Introduction
  • Light/Melanin/Water, The Human Photo-System
  • Conclusion
  • Human And Animal Rights
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgement
  • References

Chapter 6 Mental Illness, Alterations In Ventricle Size, And Human Photosynthesis

  • Arturo Solís Herrera, María Del Carmen Arias Esparza, Ruth Isabel Solís Arias, Paola
  • Eugenia Solís Arias And Martha Patricia Solís Arias
  • Background
  • Conclusion
  • Human And Animal Rights
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgement
  • References

Chapter 7 Age-Related Macular Degeneration, The Alzheimer´s Disease Of The Eye And The Intrinsic Property Of Melanin To Arturo Solís Herrera, Ruth I Solís-Arias, Paola E Solís-Arias And Martha P Solís-Arias

  • Background
  • The Photosynthesis In Humans Or Melanin´S Molecule Intrinsic Property To Splits And
  • Reform The Water Molecule
  • Material And Methods
  • Monoclonal Antibodies Anti-Vegf In The Treatment Of Armd
  • Therapeutic Results In Age-Related Macular Degeneration
  • Vitamins, Supplements And Anti-Oxidants In The Treatment Of Armd
  • Examples Of Clinical Cases
  • Conclusion
  • Human And Animal Rights
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Chapter 8 Energy Production, The Key Role Of The Melanin Molecule In The Human Body: Implications In The Context Of Aging 

  • Arturo Solís Herrera, María Del Carmen Arias Esparza, Ruth Isabel Solís Arias, Paola
  • Eugenia Solís Arias And Martha Patricia Solís Arias
  • The Origin Of Life
  • Cell Functions
  • Atp, Is Supposedly The Energy Currency Of The Cell
  • Mitochondria
  • The Not-Possible Enzyme
  • Uterine And Umbilical O2 Uptakes
  • Water And Glucose
  • The Source Of O2 For The Cell
  • The Cell Can Produce O2 At Its Own, In Situ
  • Oxygen Is Toxic At Any Level
  • The Uniqueness Of Melanin
  • Conclusion
  • Human And Animal Rights
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgement
  • References

Chapter 9 The Unexpected Role Of Melanin As Bio-Energetic Molecule And Prof Szent-Gyorgyi´S Energy Concepts: Hydrogen As Main Source Of Energy Of Muscle Cell

  • Introduction
  • Sergey Suchkov, Arturo Solís-Herrera And Ruth Isabel Solís-Arias
  • Hydrogen As The Real Source Of Energy Of The Muscle
  • The Structure And Chemistry Of Muscle
  • Muscle Changes After Death, Rigor Mortis
  • Molecular Hydrogen And Rigor Mortis
  • Differences Between Relaxation And Contraction
  • Bioenergetics And Heart Muscle
  • How A Bond-Energy Could Lock Up In A Chemical Link Produce Work Somewhere Else?
  • High Energy Electrons
  • The Visionary Concept Of Common Energy Levels Of Prof Szent-Gyorgyi
  • Lactic Fermentation
  • Atp And Energy
  • Melanin, The Unsuspected Bioenergetic Molecule
  • Optic Nerve In Young
  • Melanin Nearby The Optic Nerve
  • Melanin And Macular Diseases
  • Choroidal Nevi
  • Pigmentary Retinitis
  • Electromagnetic Radiation (Laser) Activates The Synthesis Of Melanin
  • Melanin And Myopia
  • Melanin Releases Energy Symmetrically In All Directions
  • Conclusions
  • Human And Animal Rights
  • Conflict Of Interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
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  • Arturo Solis Herrera
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